Soft Computing

, Volume 22, Issue 8, pp 2641–2666 | Cite as

Particle state change algorithm

  • Xiang Feng
  • Hanyu Xu
  • Huiqun Yu
  • Fei Luo
Methodologies and Application


The matter state change, which is a common phenomenon in nature, shows the process that the matter how to reach the optimal state in the environment. This paper presents a novel particle state change model (PSCM) inspired by mimicking the process of the matter state change. Based on PSCM, a novel particle state change (PSC) algorithm is proposed for solving continuous optimization problems. As a new algorithm, PSC has many differences from other similar nature-inspired algorithms in terms of the basic principle models, mathematical formalization and properties. This paper considers three states of the matter, namely gas state, liquid state and solid state. In a certain circumstance, the matter always converts from an unstable state into a stable state. It is similar to find the optimal solution of an optimization problem. The proposed algorithm also has the advantages in the respects of higher intelligence, effectiveness and lower computation complexity. And the convergence property of PSC is discussed in detail. In order to illustrate the ability of solving optimization problems in continuous domain, the new proposed algorithm is tested on basic function optimization, CEC2016 single-objective real-parameter numerical optimization and CEC2016 learning-base real-parameter single-objective optimization, and compared with eleven existing algorithms. The numerous simulations have shown the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed approach.


Particle state change algorithm Nature-inspired algorithm Matter state change Numerical function optimization 



This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61472139 and 61462073, the Information Development Special Funds of Shanghai Economic and Information Commission under Grant No. 201602008, the Open Funds of Shanghai Smart City Collaborative Innovation Center.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringEast University of Science and TechnologyShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Smart City Collaborative Innovation CenterShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

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