Soft Computing

, Volume 21, Issue 23, pp 7083–7098 | Cite as

Optimization of friction stir welding process parameters using soft computing techniques

  • Nizar Faisal Alkayem
  • Biswajit Parida
  • Sukhomay Pal
Methodologies and Application


In welding processes, desired weld quality is highly dependent on the selection of optimal process conditions. In this work, the influence of input parameters of friction stir welding process is studied using Taguchi method and full factorial design of experiment. The experimental data set is used to develop multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) models using back-propagation training algorithm. These models are used to predict weld qualities as a function of eight process parameters. The weld qualities of the welded joint, such as ultimate tensile strength, yield stress, percentage elongation, bending angle and hardness, are considered. In order to offline optimize these quality characteristics, four evolutionary algorithms, namely binary-coded genetic algorithm, real-coded genetic algorithm, differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, are coupled with the developed ANN models. The optimized quality characteristics obtained from these proposed techniques are compared and verified with experimental results.


Friction stir welding Artificial neural network Genetic algorithms Particle swarm optimization Differential evolution 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by SERB (Science & Engineering Research Board), India (Grant No. SERB/F/2767/2012-13), to carry out this research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nizar Faisal Alkayem
    • 1
  • Biswajit Parida
    • 1
  • Sukhomay Pal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIIT GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

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