Soft Computing

, Volume 21, Issue 21, pp 6435–6452 | Cite as

Design and analysis of BFOA-optimized fuzzy PI/PID controller for AGC of multi-area traditional/restructured electrical power systems

  • Yogendra Arya
  • Narendra Kumar
Methodologies and Application


In this paper, design and performance analysis of bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA)-optimized fuzzy PI/PID (FPI/FPID) controller for automatic generation control of multi-area interconnected traditional/restructured electrical power systems is presented. Firstly a traditional two-area non-reheat thermal system is considered, and gains of the fuzzy controller are tuned employing BFOA using integral of squared error objective function. The supremacy of this controller is demonstrated by juxtaposing the results with particle swarm optimization (PSO), firefly algorithm (FA), BFOA, hybrid BFOA–PSO-based PI and fuzzy PI controllers based upon pattern search (PS) and PSO algorithms for the same power system structure. The approach is then extended to a two-area reheat system, and improved results are found with the purported FPI/FPID controller in comparison with PSO and artificial bee colony optimized PI controller. Further, the approach is implemented on a traditional multi-source multi-area (MSMA) hydrothermal system and its superb performance is observed over genetic algorithm and hybrid FA–PS tuned PI controller. Additionally, to demonstrate the scalability of the designed controller to cope with restructured power system, the study is also protracted to a restructured MSMA hydrothermal power system. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed to ascertain the robustness of the controller designed for the systems under study. It is observed that the suggested FPI/FPID controller optimized for nominal conditions is able to handle generation rate constraints and wide variations in nominal loading condition as well as system parameters.


Multi-area power system Multi-source power system Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) Automatic generation control (AGC) PI/PID controller Restructured power system 


Compliance with ethical standards


This study was not funded by any organization.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringMaharaja Surajmal Institute of TechnologyJanakpuriIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringDelhi Technological UniversityDelhiIndia

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