Soft Computing

, Volume 21, Issue 21, pp 6351–6368 | Cite as

On asynchronous parallelization of order-based GA over grid-enabled heterogenous commodity hardware

  • José Valente de Oliveira
  • Sérgio Baltazar
  • Helder Daniel
Methodologies and Application


In real-world applications, the runtime of genetic algorithms (GAs) can be computationally demanding, an issue that can be mitigated using parallelization. The study evaluates the parallelization of order-based GAs using the island model in an asynchronous heterogeneous computing environment. The island model allows for a considerable number of migration topologies. The study offers a systematic review of the studies on migration topologies and observes that no study is available yet on the performance of these migration topologies over asynchronous heterogeneous environments. Based on a statistical analysis of a comprehensive set of experiments, using real-world TSPLIB instances, the study researches the question: What is the fastest island model topology for order-based genetic algorithm, in an asynchronous distributed heterogeneous grid-enabled commodity computing environment, without losing significant fitness comparatively to the correspondent sequential panmictic implementation of the same algorithm?. Moreover, a new speedup index, the expected root speedup, is also proposed. A diversity of topology types and characteristics are considered: the single node, star, ring, cartwheel, rooted ordered tree, rooted full binary tree, coordinated tree-ring, and feedforward fully connected layered type. Different number of nodes are also considered. While some of the types of topologies are well known, the coordinated tree-ring topology is a novelty. These types of topologies allow us to assess three notable cases: (i) no migration (isolated island), (ii) migration toward the coordinator only, and (iii) migration flows to, and from, the coordinator.


Commodity computing Expected root speedup index Genetic algorithms Island model Asynchronous hierarchical genetic algorithm Heterogeneous grid computing Globus toolkit Traveling salesman problem 



This study was funded by the FCT—The Portuguese Board of Science and Technology (Project UID/MULTI/00631/2013 - CEOT).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Author José Valente de Oliveira declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Sérgio Baltazar declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Helder Daniel declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Valente de Oliveira
    • 1
  • Sérgio Baltazar
    • 2
  • Helder Daniel
    • 2
  1. 1.CEOTUniversidade do AlgarveFaroPortugal
  2. 2.CIEOUniversidade do AlgarveFaroPortugal

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