Soft Computing

, Volume 21, Issue 18, pp 5413–5423 | Cite as

Model approach to grammatical evolution: deep-structured analyzing of model and representation

  • Pei He
  • Zelin Deng
  • Chongzhi Gao
  • Xiuni Wang
  • Jin Li
Methodologies and Application


Grammatical evolution (GE) is a combination of genetic algorithm and context-free grammar, evolving programs for given problems by breeding candidate programs in the context of a grammar using genetic operations. As far as the representation is concerned, classical GE as well as most of its existing variants lacks awareness of both syntax and semantics, therefore having no potential for parallelism of various evaluation methods. To this end, we have proposed a novel approach called model-based grammatical evolution (MGE) in terms of grammar model (a finite state transition system) previously. It is proved, in the present paper, through theoretical analysis and experiments that semantic embedded syntax taking the form of regex (regular expression) over an alphabet of simple cycles and paths provides with potential for parallel evaluation of fitness, thereby making it possible for MGE to have a better performance in coping with more complex problems than most existing GEs.


Genetic programming Grammatical evolution Finite state automaton Model 


Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61170199, 61302061), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015A030313501), the Scientific Research Fund of Education Department of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 11A004), Science and Technology Program of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 2015SK20463), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higer Education Institutions (PAPD), Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET), and the Open Fund of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Trusted Software (Guilin University of Electronic Technology) (Grant No. kx201208), Construction Project of Innovation Team in Universities in Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015KCXTD014).

Conflicts of interest

Pei He declares that he has no conflict of interest. Zelin Deng declares that he has no conflict of interest. Chongzhi Gao declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xiuni Wang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jin Li declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pei He
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zelin Deng
    • 2
  • Chongzhi Gao
    • 1
  • Xiuni Wang
    • 1
  • Jin Li
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and Educational SoftwareGuangzhou UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Computer and Communication EngineeringChangsha University of Science and TechnologyChangshaChina
  3. 3.Guangxi Key Laboratory of Trusted SoftwareGuilin University of Electronic TechnologyGuilinChina
  4. 4.Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST)NanjingChina

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