Soft Computing

, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 1667–1691

Ecosystem particle swarm optimization


DOI: 10.1007/s00500-016-2111-4

Cite this article as:
Liu, J., Ma, D., Ma, T. et al. Soft Comput (2017) 21: 1667. doi:10.1007/s00500-016-2111-4


Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a well-known swarm intelligence algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of bird flocking. PSO has been widely used in many optimization and engineering problems due to its simplicity and efficiency, even though there still exist some disadvantages. The standard PSO often suffers with premature convergence or slow convergence when the optimization problem is multimodal or high-dimensional. To overcome these drawbacks, an ecosystem PSO (ESPSO) inspired by the characteristic that a natural ecosystem can excellently keep the biological diversity and make the whole ecosystem be in a dynamic balance is presented in this paper. ESPSO not only prevents the algorithm trapping into local optima but also balances the exploration and exploitation in both unimodal and multimodal problems as compared to other PSO variants. Twenty benchmark functions including unimodal functions and multimodal nonlinear functions are used to test the searching ability of ESPSO. Experimental results show that ESPSO considerably improves the searching accuracy, the algorithm reliability and the searching efficiency in comparison with other six well-known PSO variants and four evolutionary algorithms. Moreover, ESPSO was successfully applied to the antenna array pattern synthesis design and gained satisfactory results.


Particle swarm optimization Ecosystem mechanism Antenna array pattern synthesis 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
National Nature Science Foundation of China
  • 51106104

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringTaiyuan University of TechnologyTaiyuanChina

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