Abstract
Elephant nose fish searches its food such as larvae by active electrolocation. It discharges electric pulse through its electric organ in tail and detects the object by analyzing the geometrical property of projected electrical image on it. The capacitance value found out from that electric image helps the fish to reach near the food source. Shark also uses passive electrolocation for the same purpose. It can target its prey by sensing the electrical wave generated due to the muscle twitching of small living beings in water. Both the above physiological phenomena, concerning the active and passive electrolocation of fish, has been mathematically developed as natureinspired metaheuristic technique named fish electrolocation optimization (FEO). A comparative study based on benchmark functions has been done amongst real coded genetic algorithm, accelerated particle swarm optimization, particle swarm optimization, harmony search and the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, comparative study has been done with simulated annealing and differential evolution on eggcrate function. The proposed technique has also been implemented on realworld optimization problem related to costbased reliability enhancement in radial distribution system. It can be said by comparing percentage of success, mean number of function evaluation and standard deviation that FEO algorithm works better than other mentioned metaheuristic techniques.
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Abbreviations
 diff :

Difference between maximum and minimum limit of solution variable
 longrange :

A set of discrete values in long range
 shortrange :

A set of discrete values in short range
 \(p1_l ,p2_l ,p3_l \) :

Constant terms for longrange formulation
 \(p1_s ,p2_s ,p3_s \) :

Constant terms for shortrange formulation
 vshortrange :

A set of discrete values in very short range
 i, k, j :

Index terms
 slope, vs :

Electrical image slope, short distance interval value
 xnew, \(x^{\min }\) and \(x^{\max }\) :

Calculated solution value after evolution, minimum and maximum limit of solution variable ‘x’
 \({elec}^{{pulse}}\) :

Value of electric pulse for generation of new electrical wave
 capu, capl :

Capacitor upper limit, capacitor lower limit
 capint, caphover :

Initial capacitor value, capacitor value when the conceptual electrofish is hovering and searching
 rand, floor, fix, randperm, randn and length :

Standard MATLAB\(^{\textregistered }\) 7.0 library functions
 \({rand}^i, {rand}_j^i \) :

Random value for ith individual amongst population,random value for ith individual and jth variable
 \({prob}^{{div}}, {prob}^{{sel}}\) :

Probability of divergence, probability of selection
 \({prob}^{{rng}}\) :

Probability of range
 \(x_{{best}}^t , x_{{worst}}^t \) :

Best found variable value at tth iteration, worst found variable value at tth iteration
 ch1 and ch2:

Minimum and maximum value of objective function for the first iteration
 g1, g2:

Constant terms for distance calculation
 \({cap}^{{run}}\) :

Running capacitor value
 toggle :

Toggle switch or changeover switch
 \(\sigma ( {x_i })\) :

Symbol for standard deviation function
 \({slope}^{{const}}\) :

A constant value for \({elec}^{{pulse}}\) generation
 S, m1 and m2:

Array of random index terms concerning the length of longrange, shortrange and vshortrange
 n, h1 and h2:

Selected random values from s, m1 and m2
 c2 and c3:

Values concerning shortrange and vshortrange
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Acknowledgments
The authors would like to give thanks to Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, INSPIRE Fellowship for their financial support to pursue the research work satisfactorily. The authors also like to give thanks to Dr. Kamal Krishna Mandal for his valuable suggestion. Special thanks to the teachers and staffs of Power Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, for their cooperation.
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Communicated by V. Loia.
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Haldar, V., Chakraborty, N. A novel evolutionary technique based on electrolocation principle of elephant nose fish and shark: fish electrolocation optimization. Soft Comput 21, 3827–3848 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s0050001620331
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Keywords
 Capacitance
 Electrolocation
 Optimization
 Electric image