# A novel evolutionary technique based on electrolocation principle of elephant nose fish and shark: fish electrolocation optimization

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## Abstract

Elephant nose fish searches its food such as larvae by active electrolocation. It discharges electric pulse through its electric organ in tail and detects the object by analyzing the geometrical property of projected electrical image on it. The capacitance value found out from that electric image helps the fish to reach near the food source. Shark also uses passive electrolocation for the same purpose. It can target its prey by sensing the electrical wave generated due to the muscle twitching of small living beings in water. Both the above physiological phenomena, concerning the active and passive electrolocation of fish, has been mathematically developed as nature-inspired meta-heuristic technique named fish electrolocation optimization (FEO). A comparative study based on benchmark functions has been done amongst real coded genetic algorithm, accelerated particle swarm optimization, particle swarm optimization, harmony search and the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, comparative study has been done with simulated annealing and differential evolution on eggcrate function. The proposed technique has also been implemented on real-world optimization problem related to cost-based reliability enhancement in radial distribution system. It can be said by comparing percentage of success, mean number of function evaluation and standard deviation that FEO algorithm works better than other mentioned meta-heuristic techniques.

## Keywords

Capacitance Electrolocation Optimization Electric image## Abbreviations

*diff*Difference between maximum and minimum limit of solution variable

*longrange*A set of discrete values in long range

*shortrange*A set of discrete values in short range

- \(p1_l ,p2_l ,p3_l \)
Constant terms for

*longrange*formulation- \(p1_s ,p2_s ,p3_s \)
Constant terms for

*shortrange*formulation*vshortrange*A set of discrete values in very short range

*i*,*k*,*j*Index terms

*slope*,*vs*Electrical image slope, short distance interval value

*xnew*, \(x^{\min }\) and \(x^{\max }\)Calculated solution value after evolution, minimum and maximum limit of solution variable ‘

*x*’- \({elec}^{{pulse}}\)
Value of electric pulse for generation of new electrical wave

*capu*,*capl*Capacitor upper limit, capacitor lower limit

*capint*,*caphover*Initial capacitor value, capacitor value when the conceptual electro-fish is hovering and searching

*rand*,*floor*,*fix*,*randperm*,*randn*and*length*Standard MATLAB\(^{\textregistered }\) 7.0 library functions

- \({rand}^i, {rand}_j^i \)
Random value for

*i*th individual amongst population,random value for*i*th individual and*j*th variable- \({prob}^{{div}}, {prob}^{{sel}}\)
Probability of divergence, probability of selection

- \({prob}^{{rng}}\)
Probability of range

- \(x_{{best}}^t , x_{{worst}}^t \)
Best found variable value at

*t*th iteration, worst found variable value at*t*th iteration*ch*1 and*ch*2Minimum and maximum value of objective function for the first iteration

*g*1,*g*2Constant terms for distance calculation

- \({cap}^{{run}}\)
Running capacitor value

*toggle*Toggle switch or changeover switch

- \(\sigma ( {x_i })\)
Symbol for standard deviation function

- \({slope}^{{const}}\)
A constant value for \({elec}^{{pulse}}\) generation

*S*,*m*1 and*m*2Array of random index terms concerning the length of

*longrange*,*shortrange*and*vshortrange**n*,*h*1 and*h*2Selected random values from

*s*,*m*1 and*m*2*c*2 and*c*3Values concerning

*shortrange*and*vshortrange*

## Notes

### Acknowledgments

The authors would like to give thanks to Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, INSPIRE Fellowship for their financial support to pursue the research work satisfactorily. The authors also like to give thanks to Dr. Kamal Krishna Mandal for his valuable suggestion. Special thanks to the teachers and staffs of Power Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, for their co-operation.

### Compliance with ethical standards

### Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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