Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important horticultural crop in many regions of the world. The final shape and size of the fruit are known to be determined at a very early step of flower development. During flower development hormonal treatments using gibberellins seem to promote growth resulting in higher yield and fruit quality. However, the morphological changes that occur in the pepper flowers after these treatments are largely unknown. In the present study, we provide a description of floral development landmarks of jalapeño chili pepper (cultivar Huichol), divided in nine representative stages from its initiation until the opening of the bud. We established a correlation among external flower development and the time and pattern of reproductive organogenesis. Male and female gametogenesis progression was used to define specific landmarks during flower maturation. The pattern of expression of key genes involved in gibberellin metabolism and response was also evaluated in the nine flower stages. The proposed development framework was used to analyze the effect of gibberellin treatments in the development of the flower. We observed both an effect of the treatment in the histology of the ovary tissue and an increase in the level of expression of CaGA2ox1 and CaGID1b genes. The developmental stages we defined for this species are very useful to analyze the molecular and morphological changes after hormonal treatments.
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This work was supported by grants from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN, i-COOP Agrofood 2014CD0018) and National Council on Science and Technology (CONACYT) of Mexico by Grant FORDECYT-193512. R.S.O. is a recipient of CONACYT doctoral fellowship. We thank Rafael Martinez and Primitivo Murias for expert plant care and Marisol Gascón for technical assistance with the microscope.
Communicated by Dolf Weijers.
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Sandoval-Oliveros, R., Guevara-Olvera, L., Beltrán, J.P. et al. Developmental landmarks during floral ontogeny of jalapeño chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and the effect of gibberellin on ovary growth. Plant Reprod 30, 119–129 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00497-017-0307-0
- Capsicum annuum
- Chili pepper
- Flower development