Local Properties in Colored Graphs, Distinct Distances, and Difference Sets

Abstract

We study Extremal Combinatorics problems where local properties are used to derive global properties. That is, we consider a given configuration where every small piece of the configuration satisfies some restriction, and use this local property to derive global properties of the entire configuration. We study one such Ramsey problem of Erdős and Shelah, where the configurations are complete graphs with colored edges and every small induced subgraph contains many distinct colors. Our bounds for this Ramsey problem show that the known probabilistic construction is tight in various cases. We study one Discrete Geometry variant, also by Erdős, where we have a set of points in the plane such that every small subset spans many distinct distances. Finally, we consider an Additive Combinatorics problem, where we are given sets of real numbers such that every small subset has a large difference set.

We derive new bounds for all of the above problems. Our proof technique is based on introducing a variant of additive energy, which is based on edge colors in graphs.

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Correspondence to Adam Sheffer.

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Supported by NSF grant DMS-1710305

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Pohoata, C., Sheffer, A. Local Properties in Colored Graphs, Distinct Distances, and Difference Sets. Combinatorica 39, 705–714 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00493-018-3890-2

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Mathematics Subject Classification (2010)

  • 05C35
  • 05C55