The local chromatic number of a graph G, as introduced in , is the minimum integer k such that G admits a proper coloring (with an arbitrary number of colors) in which the neighborhood of each vertex uses less than k colors. In  a connection of the local chromatic number to topological properties of (a box complex of) the graph was established and in  it was shown that a topological condition implying the usual chromatic number being at least four has the stronger consequence that the local chromatic number is also at least four. As a consequence one obtains a generalization of the following theorem of Youngs : If a quadrangulation of the projective plane is not bipartite it has chromatic number four. The generalization states that in this case the local chromatic number is also four.
Both papers  and  generalize Youngs’ result to arbitrary non-orientable surfaces replacing the condition of the graph being not bipartite by a more technical condition of an odd quadrangulation. This paper investigates when these general results are true for the local chromatic number instead of the chromatic number. Surprisingly, we find out that (unlike in the case of the chromatic number) this depends on the genus of the surface. For the non-orientable surfaces of genus at most four, the local chromatic number of any odd quadrangulation is at least four, but this is not true for non-orientable surfaces of genus 5 or higher.
We also prove that face subdivisions of odd quadrangulations and Fisk triangulations of arbitrary surfaces exhibit the same behavior for the local chromatic number as they do for the usual chromatic number.
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Supported in part by an NSERC Discovery Grant, by the Canada Research Chair program, and by Research Grant P1-0297 of ARRS, Slovenia.
Research partially supported by the Hungarian Foundation for Scientific Research Grant (OTKA) Nos. K76088 and NK78439.
Supported by an NSERC grant, the Lendület project of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and the Hungarian Foundation for Scientific Research Grant (OTKA) Nos. T102029 and NK78439.
Bojan Mohar On leave from: IMFM & FMF Department of Mathematics University of Ljubljana Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Mohar, B., Simonyi, G. & Tardos, G. Local chromatic number of quadrangulations of surfaces. Combinatorica 33, 467–494 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00493-013-2771-y
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