Skip to main content
Log in

Resilience of three indigenous goat breeds to heat stress based on phenotypic traits and PBMC HSP70 expression

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
International Journal of Biometeorology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of summer heat stress on physiological and behavioral responses of Osmanabadi, Salem Black, and Malabari goats. The study also evaluated the differences in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression pattern between these breeds. The study was conducted over 45 days during summer (April–May) using 36 1-year-old female goats by randomly allocating them into six groups with six animals in each group: Osmanabadi control (Osmanabadi CON), Osmanabadi heat stress (Osmanabadi HS), Malabari control (Malabari CON), Malabari heat stress (Malabari HS), Salem Black control (Salem Black CON), and Salem Black heat stress (Salem Black HS). The Osmanabadi CON, Malabari CON, and Salem Black CON animals were housed in a shed while the Osmanabadi HS, Malabari HS, and Salem Black HS groups were subjected to heat stress by exposing them to outside environment between 1000 and 1600 h during the experimental period. All 36 animals were provided with ad libitum feed and water. The data generated were analyzed by general linear model (GLM) repeated measurement analysis of variance. Results indicated that the drinking frequency (DF) was higher (p < 0.01) in heat stress groups (12.58, 12.25, and 10.75 times for the Osmanabadi HS, Malabari HS, and Salem Black HS, respectively) as compared to their respective control groups (5.67, 6.25, 5.58 times for the Osmanabadi CON, Malabari CON, and Salem Black CON, respectively). Water intake (WI) also showed similar trend to DF. The urinating frequency also (UF) differed between breeds with lower value (p < 0.05) recorded in the Salem Black HS (1.5 times) compared to the Malabari HS (2.92 times). The highest (p < 0.05) rumination time (RuT) was recorded in the Malabari HS (48.00 min) than both the Osmanabadi HS (20.91 min) and Salem Black HS (23.67 min). The heat stress increased (p < 0.05) all physiological variables at 1400 h. The findings of this study suggest RR, RT, and PBMC HSP70 are reliable biological markers for evaluating thermo-tolerance capacity of indigenous goat breeds.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Alam MM, Hashem MA, Rahman MM, Hossain MM, Haque MR, Sobhan Z, Islam MS (2013) Effect of heat stress on behavior, physiological and blood parameters of goat. Progress Agric 22(1&2):37–45

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Haidary AA, Aljumaah RS, Alshaikh MA, Abdoun KA, Samara EM, Okab AB, Alfuraiji MM (2012) Thermoregulatory and physiological responses of Nazdi sheep exposed to environmental heat load prevailing in Saudi Arabia. Pak Vet J 32:515–519

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Tamimi HJ (2007) Thermoregulatory response of goat kids subjected to heat stress. Small Rumin Res 71(1):280–285

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Archana PR, Sejian V, Ruban W, Bagath M, Krishnan G, Aleena J, Manjunathareddy GB, Beena V, Bhatta R (2018) Comparative assessment of heat stress induced changes in carcass traits, plasma leptin profile and skeletal muscle myostatin and HSP70 gene expression patterns between indigenous Osmanabadi and Salem Black goat breeds. Meat Sci 141:66–80

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bagath M, Sejian V, Archana SS, Manjunathareddy BG, Parthipan S, Selvaraju S, Mech A, David ICG, Ravindra JP, Bhatta R (2016) Effect of dietary intake on somatotrophic axis-related gene expression and endocrine profile in Osmanabadi goats. J Vet Behav 13:72–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Banerjee D, Upadhyay RC, Chaudhary UB, Kumar R, Singh S, Ashutosh, Tapan KD, De S (2015) Seasonal variations in physio-biochemical profiles of Indian goats in the paradigm of hot and cold climate. Biol Rhythm Res 46(2):221–236

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Banerjee D, Upadhyay RC, Chaudhary UB, Kumar R, Singh S, Ashutosh GJM, Polley S, Mukherjee A, Das TK, De S (2014) Seasonal variation in expression pattern of genes under HSP70. Cell Stress and Chaperones 19(3):401–408

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bharati J, Dangi SS, Chouhan VS, Mishra SR, Bharti MK, Verma V, Bag S (2017) Expression dynamics of HSP70 during chronic heat stress in Tharparkar cattle. Int J Biometerol 61(6):1017–1027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • da Silva WE, Leite JHGM, de Sousa JER, Costa WP, da Silva WST, Guilhermino MM, Façanha DAE (2017) Daily rhythmicity of the thermoregulatory responses of locally adapted Brazilian sheep in a semiarid environment. Int J Biometerol 61(7):1221–1231

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garner JB, Douglas M, Williams SRO, Wales WJ, Marett LC, DiGiacomo K, Hayes BJ (2017) Responses of dairy cows to short-term heat stress in controlled-climate chambers. Anim Prod Sci 57(7):1233–1241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta M, Kumar S, Dangi SS, Jangir BL (2013) Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses to thermal stress in goats. Int J Livest Res 3(2):27–38

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Habibu B, Kawu MU, Makun HJ, Aluwong T, Yaqub LS (2016) Seasonal variation in body mass index, cardinal physiological variables and serum thyroid hormones profiles in relation to susceptibility to thermal stress in goat kids. Small Rumin Res 145:20–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hagan JK, Apori SO, Bosompem M, Ankobea G, Mawuli A (2012) Morphological characteristics of indigenous goats in the coastal savannah and forest eco-zones of Ghana. J Anim Sci Adv 2(10):813–821

    Google Scholar 

  • Hooda OK, Upadhyay RC (2014) Physiological responses, growth rate and blood metabolites under feed restriction and thermal exposure in kids. J Stress Physiol Biochem 10(2):214–227

    Google Scholar 

  • Indu S, Sejian V, Naqvi SMK (2014) Impact of simulated heat stress on growth, physiological adaptability, blood metabolites and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes under semiarid tropical environment. Anim Prod Sci 55(6):1314–1323

    Google Scholar 

  • Katiyatiya CLF, Bradley G, Muchenje V (2017) Thermotolerance, health profile and cellular expression of HSP90AB1 in Nguni and Boran cows raised on natural pastures under tropical conditions. J Therm Biol 69:85–94

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Manjari R, Yadav M, Uniyal S, Rastogi SK, Sejian V, Hyder I (2015) HSP70 as a marker of heat and humidity stress in Tarai Buffalo. Trop Anim Health Prod 47:111–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marai IFM, El-Darawany AA, Fadiel A, Abdel-Hafez MAM (2007) Physiological traits as affected by heat stress in sheep—a review. Small Rumin Res 71(1):1–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDowell RE (1972) Improvement of livestock production in warm climate. WH Freeman and Co., San Francisco, pp 51–53

    Google Scholar 

  • Panda R, Ghorpade PP, Chopade SS, Kodape AH, Palampalle HY, Dagli NR (2016) Effect of heat stress on behaviour and physiological parameters of Osmanabadi goats under katcha housing system in Mumbai. J Livest Sci 7:196–199

    Google Scholar 

  • Popoola MA, Bolarinwa MO, Yahaya MO, Adebisi GL, Saka AA (2014) Thermal comfort effect on physiological adaptation and growth performance of west African dwarf goats raised in Nigeria. Eur Sci J 3:275–281

    Google Scholar 

  • Ratnakaran AP, Sejian V, Jose VS, Vaswani S, Bagath M, Krishnan G, Beena V, Indira Devi P, Varma G, Bhatta R (2017) Behavioural responses to livestock adaptation to heat stress challenges. Asian J Anim Sci 11(1):1–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Rojas-Downing MM, Nejadhashemi AP, Harrigan T, Woznicki SA (2017) Climate change and livestock: impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. Clim Risk Manag 16:145–163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seguin B (2008) The consequences of global warming for agriculture and food production. In: Rowlinson P, Steele M, Nefzaoui A (Eds) Proceedings in International Conference “Livestock and Global Climate Change” (Hammamet, Tunisia 17–20 9–11)

  • Shilja S, Sejian V, Bagath M, Mech A, David ICG, Kurien EK, Varma G, Bhatta R (2016) Adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma HSP70 level and PBMC HSP70 mRNA expression in Osmanabadi goats subjected to combined (heat and nutritional) stressors. In J Biometeorol 60:1311–1323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Silanikove N, Koluman N (2015) Impact of climate change on the dairy industry in temperate zones: predications on the overall negative impact and on the positive role of dairy goats in adaptation to earth warming. Small Rumin Res 123(1):27–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stocker T (Ed) (2014) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis: working group I contribution to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press

  • Thiruvenkadan AK, Jayakumar V, Kathiravan P, Saravanan R (2014) Genetic architecture and bottleneck analyses of Salem Black goat breed based on microsatellite markers. Vet World 7(9):733–737

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Valente ÉEL, Chizzotti ML, Oliveira CVR, Galvão MC, Domingues SS, Rodrigues AC, Ladeira MM (2015) Intake, physiological parameters and behavior of Angus and Nellore bulls subjected to heat stress. Semina: Ciências Agrárias 36:4565–4574

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors sincerely thank the Director of ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology for extending all research facilities.


The authors thank the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) for funding this research.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. Sejian.

Ethics declarations

Ethical statement

The institute ethical committee has provided necessary permission for conducting this study (NIANP/IAEC/2/2017), and they approved the methodologies and techniques used. The experimental protocol was in strict accordance with international guidelines for exposing the animals to heat stress and for the use of animals in research.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aleena, J., Sejian, V., Bagath, M. et al. Resilience of three indigenous goat breeds to heat stress based on phenotypic traits and PBMC HSP70 expression. Int J Biometeorol 62, 1995–2005 (2018).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: