This study aimed to investigate the effect of inpatient vs outpatient spa therapy on pain, quality of life, and anxiety in elderly patients with generalized osteoarthritis. A total of 150 patients were randomized into three groups. Group I was given medical treatment, group II was treated as outpatients, and group III was treated as inpatient spa therapy. Assessments were made using the Pain (VAS), EQ-5D-3L Scale, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning of treatment (W0), at the end of treatment (W2), and at the fourth week after treatment (W6). The comparison of outpatient spa group and etodolac treatment group showed that outpatient spa group was superior to etodolac treatment group in all evaluated parameters at W2 vs W0 and W6 vs W0. The comparison of inpatient spa group and etodolac treatment group showed that inpatient spa group was superior to etodolac treatment group in all evaluated parameters at W2 vs W0 and W6 vs W0. The comparison of inpatient spa group and outpatient spa group showed that inpatient spa group was superior to outpatient spa group in all evaluated parameters except STAI-TXII at W2 vs W0 and in all evaluated parameters W6 vs W0. Spa therapy, either as an outpatient or inpatient basis, may have a positive effect on pain, anxiety, and quality of life in geriatric patients with generalized osteoarthritis. The inpatient spa therapy may be more beneficial than outpatient spa therapy. When the side effects of drug treatments are emphasized, spa therapy may be considered as an interesting option for elderly with osteoarthritis.
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The authors thank Barış Kaki, Ph.D., from Usak University, for his technical help in performing statistical analysis. The authors also thank Sinan Kardeş, MD, from Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, for English editing and proofreading of the manuscript and for his critical assistance in revising the manuscript according to the reviewers’ comments.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Research Ethics Committee (25.02.2016-2015/88) and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to being included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Özkuk, K., Uysal, B., Ateş, Z. et al. The effects of inpatient versus outpatient spa therapy on pain, anxiety, and quality of life in elderly patients with generalized osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Int J Biometeorol 62, 1823–1832 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1584-5