International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 61, Issue 12, pp 2033–2045 | Cite as

Macro- and microclimate conditions may alter grapevine deacclimation: variation in thermal amplitude in two contrasting wine regions from North and South America

  • Francisco Gonzalez AntiviloEmail author
  • Rosalía Cristina Paz
  • Markus Keller
  • Roberto Borgo
  • Jorge Tognetti
  • Fidel Roig Juñent
Original Paper


Low temperature is a limiting factor that affects vineyard distribution globally. The level of cold hardiness acquired during the dormant season by Vitis sp. is crucial for winter survival. Most research published on this topic has been generated beyond 40° N latitude, where daily mean temperatures may attain injurious levels during the dormant season resulting in significant damage to vines and buds. Symptoms of cold injury have been identified in Mendoza (32–35° S latitude), a Southern Hemisphere wine region characterized by a high thermal amplitude, and warm winds during the dormant season. These symptoms have usually been attributed to drought and/or pathogens, but not to rapid deacclimation followed by injurious low temperatures. Because local information on meteorological events as probable causes is scarce, this research was designed to test and study this assumption by comparing macro-, meso-, and microclimatic data from Mendoza, Argentina, and eastern Washington, USA. The goal was to unveil why freezing damage has occurred in both regions, despite the existence of large climatic differences. Because environmental parameters under field conditions may not correspond to data recorded by conventional weather stations, sensors were installed in vineyards for comparison. Microclimatic conditions on grapevines were also evaluated to assess the most vulnerable portions of field-grown grapevines. In order to better understand if it may be possible to modify cold hardiness status in a short period with high thermal amplitude conditions, deacclimation was induced using a thermal treatment. Hence, despite the fact that Mendoza is warmer, and temperatures are not as extreme as in Washington, high daily thermal amplitude might be partially involved in plant deacclimation, leading to a differential cold hardiness response.


Cold hardiness Deacclimation Thermal amplitude Grapevine Mendoza Washington state 



This work was funded by Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica, Argentina (ANPCyT), CONICET, and PRH 2007 (UNCuyo-AGENCIA). We thank the staff of the Vegetal Physiology Department and Biological Chemistry of Agronomy Faculty of UNCuyo Mendoza (especially Bruno Cavagnaro and Emiliano Malovini), Viticulture Laboratory of IAREC in Washington State (especially Lynn Mills, John Ferguson, and Allan Kawakami), Statistical Department of UNC Córdoba (especially Mónica Balzarini and Mariano Córdoba), INTA EEA Mendoza Ecophysiology and Viticulture Department (especially Jorge Perez Peña, Eugenia Galat Giorgi and Dante Gamboa), IANIGLA CCT-Mendoza (especially to Federico Gonzalez and Diego Araneo) for sharing their knowledge and technical support and to all the students that participated in our research.

Supplementary material

484_2017_1400_Fig6_ESM.gif (35 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1

Meta analysis of 100 publications about cold hardiness in fruit trees around the world (GIF 35 kb)

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High Resolution Image (TIFF 7436 kb)
484_2017_1400_Fig7_ESM.gif (8 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 2

Figure 2 Typical DTA profiles of low temperature exotherms (LTE), indicating lethal intracellular freezing, from two single TEM containing either five buds (lower plot) or two cane pieces (upper plot) of Malbec sampled on 23 Feb 2005, in Prosser, WA. High temperature exotherms (HTE), indicating nonlethal extracellular freezing, are shown to the right of the dashed -10°C line. © American Society for Enology and Viticulture. AJEV 57:194-200 (GIF 8 kb)

484_2017_1400_MOESM2_ESM.tiff (1.1 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 1163 kb)


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Copyright information

© ISB 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de Dendrocronología e Historia AmbientalIANIGLA, CCT-CONICET-MendozaMendozaArgentina
  2. 2.CIGEOBIO (FCEFyN, UNSJ/CONICET)San JuanArgentina
  3. 3.Department of Horticulture, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension CenterWashington State UniversityProsserUSA
  4. 4.Cátedra de Fisiología Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias AgrariasUniversidad Nacional de CuyoMendozaArgentina
  5. 5.Laboratorio de Fisiología Vegetal—Facultad de Ciencias AgrariasUniversidad Nacional de Mar del PlataMar del PlataArgentina
  6. 6.Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina

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