Skip to main content

The effect of geographical indices on left ventricular structure in healthy Han Chinese population

Abstract

The left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) are generally regarded as the functional parts of the left ventricular (LV) structure. This paper aims to examine the effects of geographical indices on healthy Han adults’ LV structural indices and to offer a scientific basis for developing a unified standard for the reference values of adults’ LV structural indices in China. Fifteen terrain, climate, and soil indices were examined as geographical explanatory variables. Statistical analysis was performed using correlation analysis. Moreover, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) and a support vector regression (SVR) were applied to developing models to predict the values of two indices. After the prediction models were built, distribution maps were produced. The results show that LV structural indices are characteristically associated with latitude, longitude, altitude, average temperature, average wind velocity, topsoil sand fraction, topsoil silt fraction, topsoil organic carbon, and topsoil sodicity. The model test analyses show the BPNN model possesses better simulative and predictive ability in comparison with the SVR model. The distribution maps of the LV structural indices show that, in China, the values are higher in the west and lower in the east. These results demonstrate that the reference values of the adults’ LV structural indices will be different affected by different geographical environment. The reference values of LV structural indices in one region can be calculated by setting up a BPNN, which showed better applicability in this study. The distribution of the reference values of the LV structural indices can be seen clearly on the geographical distribution map.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  • Banka VS, Agarwal JB, Bodenheimer MM, et al. (1981) Angiographic assessment of its relative contribution to left and right ventricular contraction. Interventricular septal motion: biventricular angiographic assessment of its relative contribution to left and right ventricular contraction. Circulation 64(5):992–996

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cao XQ, Zhu JG, Tang RY (2005) Soft-sensing technology based on improved BP neural network. Chin J Sci Instrum S1:185–186 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen J, Wu X, Liu DL (2011) The relationship between interventricular septum thickness and carotid intima-media thickness and vascular endothelial function in patients with hypertension. Chin J Hypertens 19(1):71–74 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Cortes C, Vapnik V (1995) Support-vector networks. Mach Learn 29(3):273–297

    Google Scholar 

  • Desu RK, Guntuku SC, Aditya B, et al. (2014) Support vector regression based flow stress prediction in austenitic stainless steel 304. Prog Mater Sci 6:368–375

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Devereux R (1977) Echocardiographic determination of left ventricular mass in man. Circulation 55:613–618

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Devereux RB, Drayer JI, Chien S, et al. (1984) Whole blood viscosity as a determinant of cardiac hypertrophy in systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 54(6):592–595

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ding SF, Ye FL (1989) Role of blood viscosity and blood flow velocity in left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension. J Clin Intern Med 3:24–25 (In Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrido C, De Oña R, De Oña J (2014) Neural networks for analyzing service quality in public transportation. Expert Syst Appl 41(15):6830–6838

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghodsi R, Mirabdollah R, Jalali R, et al. (2012) Predicting wheat production in Iran using an artificial neural networks approach. Int J Acad Restaur Bus Soc Sci 2(2):34

    Google Scholar 

  • Gradman AH, Alfayoumi F (2006) From left ventricular hypertrophy to congestive heart failure: management of hypertensive heart disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 48(5):326–341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hashiguchi N, Takeda A, Yasuyama Y, et al. (2013) Effects of 6-h exposure to low relative humidity and low air pressure on body fluid loss and blood viscosity. Indoor Air 23(5):430–436

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jin YH, Chen ZM, Liu ZJ, et al. (2010) Characteristic of cardiac remodeling in patients with essential hypertension and polycythemia in high altitude. J Clin Cardiol (China) 26(6):433–435

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalteh AM (2013) Monthly river flow forecasting using artificial neural network and support vector regression models coupled with wavelet transform. Comput Geosci 54:1–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kampus P, Serg M, Kals J, et al. (2011) Differential effects of nebivolol and metoprolol on central aortic pressure and left ventricular wall thickness. Hypertension 57(6):1122–1128

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kansal S, Roitman D, Sheffield LT (1979) Interventricular septal thickness and left ventricular hypertrophy. An echocardiographic study. Circulation 60(5):1058–1065

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kasabov NK (1996) Foundations of neural networks, fuzzy systems and knowledge engineering. MIT Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Li ZH, Chen XX, Fu Q, et al. (2006) The relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy and blood viscosity in patients with essential hypertension. Qiqihar Med Univ J 27(13):1554–1555 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Mubiru J (2011) Using artificial neural networks to predict direct solar irradiation. Adv Artif Neural Syst 12

  • Naeije R (2010) Physiological adaptation of the cardiovascular system to high altitude. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 52(6):456–466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson LR, Waggoner AD, Schechtman KB, et al. (2004) Alterations in left ventricular structure and function in young healthy obese women: assessment by echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 43(8):1399–1404

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pluim BM, Zwinderman AH, Vander Laarse A, et al. (2000) The athlete’s heart a meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation 101(3):336–344

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Qiu XX (2009) The influence of plateau environment on cardiac function. Guizhou Sport Sci Tech 2:33–35 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Roman MJ, Ganau A, Saba PS, et al. (2000) Impact of arterial stiffening on left ventricular structure. Hypertension 36(4):489–494

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rumelhart DE, Hinton GE, Williams RJ (1986) Learning representations by back-propagating errors. Nature 323:533–536

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tobler WR (1970) A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region. Econ Geogr 46(2):234–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toros H, Deniz A, Şaylan L, et al. (2005) Spatial variability of chilling temperature in Turkey and its effect on human comfort. Meteorog Atmos Phys 88(1):107–118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tuller SE (1997) Climatic controls of the cool human thermal sensation in a summertime onshore wind. Int J Biometeorol 41(1):26–33

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Verdecchia P, Schillaci G, Guerrieri M, et al. (1990) Circadian blood pressure changes and left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension. Circulation 81(2):528–536

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vertilus SM (2010) Echocardiographic manifestations of glycogen storage disease III: increase in wall thickness and left ventricular mass over time. Genet Med Off J Am Coll Med Genet 12(7):413–423

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang Y, Chen H, Ran W (2013) Association of arterial structure and endothelial function with intervcntricular septum thickness in healthy subject. Int Med Health Guid News 18(19):2808–2810 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Wauters M, Vanhoucke M (2014) Support vector machine regression for project forecasting. Autom Constr 47:92–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wong CY, O’Moore-Sullivan T, Leano R, et al. (2004) Alterations of left ventricular myocardial characteristics associated with obesity. Circulation 110(19):3081–3087

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu YH, Xiao R, Tang SX, et al. (2013) Changes of the cardiac structure and function in Han people returning to the plain for at least 3 years after long-term exposure to high altitude. Mod Prev Med 40(17):3162–3165 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Zannad F, Voisin P, Brunotte F, et al. (1988) Haemorheological abnormalities in arterial hypertension and their relation to cardiac hypertrophy. J Hypertens 6(4):293–297

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou M, Nie M (2013) Application of the Spectrum peak positioning technology based on BP neural network in demodulation of cavity length of EFPI fiber optical sensor. J Comput Commun 1(7):67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou Q (2014) Changes of the cardiac structure and function in Han people returning to the plain for at least 3 years after long-term exposure to high altitude. Cardiovasc Res 103(suppl 1):S83–S84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou Q, Cao ZC, Chen ZG (2005) Correlation of left ventricular geometry with insulin resistance in elderly patients with essential hypertension. Chin J Geriatr 24(10):729–732 (in Chinese)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Project 40971060 supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China and No. GK201504015 supported by Central College Fund.

Authors’ contributions

MYC performed the statistical analyses and acquired and interpreted the data. GM conceived of the study and carried out the design of the study. YLL, CXW, and SFY helped to revise the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Miao Ge.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 53 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cen, M., Ge, M., Liu, Y. et al. The effect of geographical indices on left ventricular structure in healthy Han Chinese population. Int J Biometeorol 61, 303–311 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-016-1212-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-016-1212-1

Keywords

  • Left ventricular structure
  • Left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT)
  • Interventricular septal thickness (IVST)
  • Geographical indices
  • Prediction