Advertisement

International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 60, Issue 10, pp 1463–1479 | Cite as

Modeling and in situ measurements of biometeorological conditions in microenvironments within the Athens University Campus, Greece

  • Panagiotis T. NastosEmail author
  • Iliana D. Polychroni
Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of this research is to assess and analyze the biometeorological perception in complex microenvironments in the Athens University Campus (AUC) using urban micromodels, such as RayMan. The human thermal sensation in such a place was considered of great significance due to the great gathering of student body and staff of the University. The quantification of the biometeorological conditions was succeeded by the estimation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), which is a biometeorological index based on the human energy balance. We carried out, on one hand, field measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and global solar irradiance for different sites (building atrium, open area, and green atrium) of the examined microurban environment in order to calculate PET during January–July 2013. Additionally, on the other hand, PET modeling was performed using different sky-view factors and was compared to a reference site (meteorological station of Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens). The global radiation was transferred to the examined sites with the RayMan model, which considers the sky-view factors for the adaptation of the radiation fluxes to simple and complex environments. The results of this study reveal the crucial importance of the existence of trees and green cover in a complex environment, as a factor that could be the solution to the efforts of stake holders in order to mitigate strong heat stress and improve people’s living quality in urban areas.

Keywords

Biometeorological conditions Physiologically equivalent temperature Sky-view factor Complex microenvironment Athens 

References

  1. Almeida SP, Casimiro E, Calheiros J (2010) Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal. Environ Heal 9(1):12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Analitis A, Katsouyanni K, Biggeri A, et al. (2008) Effects of cold weather on mortality: results from 15 European cities within the PHEWE project. Am J Epidemiol 168(12):1397–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baccini M, Biggeri A, Accetta G, et al. (2008) Heat effects on mortality in 15 European cities. Epidemiology 19(5):711–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauche JP, Grigorieva E, Matzarakis A (2013) Human–biometeorological assessment of urban structures in extreme climate conditions: the example of Birobidzhan. Russian Far East Advances in Meteorology. doi: 10.1155/2013/749270 Google Scholar
  5. Bulgan E, Yilmaz S, Matzarakis A, Irmak MA (2014) Quantification of summer thermal bioclimate of different land uses in an urban city centre. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Countermeasures to Urban Heat Island, October 13–15, VeniceGoogle Scholar
  6. Charalampopoulos I, Tsiros I, Chronopoulou-Sereli A, Matzarakis A (2013) Analysis of thermal bioclimate in various urban configurations in Athens, Greece. Urban Ecosystems 16:217–233. doi: 10.1007/s11252-012-0252-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charalampopoulos I, Tsiros I, Chronopoulou-Sereli A, Matzarakis A (2014) A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens. Int J Biometeorol. doi: 10.1007/s00484-014-0934-1 Google Scholar
  8. Chen L, Ng E, An X, Ren C, Lee M, Wang U, He Z (2012) Sky view factor analysis of street canyons and its implications for daytime intra-urban air temperature differentials in high-rise, high-density urban areas of Hong Kong: a GIS-based simulation approach. Int J Climatol 32:121–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chronopoulou-Sereli A, Chronopoulos I (2011) Biometeorology-bioclimatology. Ziti Publications, ThessalonikiGoogle Scholar
  10. Curriero FC, Heiner KS, Samet JM, Zeger SL, Strug L, Patz JA (2002) Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the eastern United States. Am J Epidemiol 155(1):80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Freitas CR (2003) Tourism climatology: evaluating environmental information for decision making and business planning in the recreation and tourism sector. Int J Biometeorol 48(1):45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Didaskalou EA, Nastos PT (2003) The role of climatic and bioclimatic conditions in the development of health tourism product. Anatolia 14(2):107–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fanger PO (1972) Thermal comfort. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Fröhlich D, Matzarakis A (2013a) Modeling of changes in thermal bioclimate: examples based on urban spaces in Freiburg, Germany. Theor Appl Climatol 111(3–4):547–558. doi: 10.1007/s00704-012-0678-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fröhlich D, Matzarakis A (2013b) Thermal bioclimate and urban planning in Freiburg-examples based on urban spaces. Theor Appl Climatol 111:547–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gal T, Lindberg F, Unger J (2009) Computing continuous sky view factor using 3D urban raster and vector databases: comparison and an application for urban climate. Theor Appl Climatol 95:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hämmerle M, Gál T, Unger J, Matzarakis A (2011) Comparison of models calculating the sky view factor used for urban climate investigations. Theor Appl Climatol 105:521–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hamilton JM, Lau MA (2005) The role of climate information in tourist destination choice decision-making. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Biometeorology (ICB 2005) GarmischPartenkirchen, Germany, 9-5 September 2005, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, pp 608–611Google Scholar
  19. Höppe P (1993) Heat balance modelling. Experientia 49:741–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Höppe P (1999) The physiological equivalent temperature—a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. Int J Biometeorol 43(2):71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hwang R-L, Lin TP, Matzarakis A (2009) Outdoor thermal comfort in University Campus in hot-humid regions. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Urban Climate June 29–July 3, Yokohama, JapanGoogle Scholar
  22. Ichinose T, Shimodozono K, Hanaki K (1999) Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo. Atmos Environ 33:3897–3909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Irmak MA, Yilmaz S, Yilmaz H, Ozer S, Toy S (2013) Evaluation of different thermal conditions based on THI under different kind of tree types – as a specific case in a Ata botanic garden in eastern Turkey. Global NEST Journal 15(1):131–139Google Scholar
  24. Ketterer C, Matzarakis A (2014) Human-biometeorological assessment of heat stress reduction by replanning measures in Stuttgart, Germany. Landsc Urban Plan 122:78–88. doi: 10.1016/j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koppe C, Kovats S, Jendritzky G, Menne B (2004) Heat-waves: risks and responses. Health and global environmental change series no 2. WHO, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuttler W (2000) Stadtklima in Handbuch der Umweltveränderungen und Ökotoxologie. Bd 1B: Atmosphäre (Hrsg.), R. Guderian, Ed. Springer, pp. 420–470Google Scholar
  27. Lin CH, Lin TP, Hwang RL (2013) Thermal comfort for urban parks in subtropics: understanding visitor’s perceptions. Behavior and Attendance Advances in Meteorology. doi: 10.1155/2013/640473 Google Scholar
  28. Lin TP, Ho YF, Huang YS (2007) Seasonal effect of pavement on outdoor thermal environments in subtropical Taiwan. Build Environ 42:4124–4131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lin TP, Matzarakis A, Hwang R-L (2010) Shading effect on long-term outdoor thermal comfort. Build Environ 45(1):213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Matzarakis A, Mayer H, Iziomon MG (1999) Applications of a universal thermal index: physiological equivalent temperature. Int J Biometeorol 43(2):76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matzarakis A, De Rocco M, Najjar G (2009) Thermal bioclimate in Strasbourg–the 2003 heat wave. Theor Appl Climatol 98:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Matzarakis A, Rutz F, Mayer H (2010) Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments-basics of the RayMan model. Int J Biometeorol 54:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matzarakis A, Nastos PT (2011a) Analysis of tourism potential for Crete Island, Greece. Global Nest Journal 13:141–149Google Scholar
  34. Matzarakis A, Nastos PT (2011b) Human-biometeorological assessment of heat waves in Athens. Theor Appl Climatol 105:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mayer H, Höppe PR (1987) Thermal comfort of man in different urban environments. Theor Appl Climatol 38:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mayer H, Matzarakis A, Iziomon MG (2003) Spatio-temporal variability of moisture conditions within the urban canopy layer. Theor Appl Climatol 76(3–4):165–179. doi: 10.1007/s00704-003-0010-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Michelozzi P, Kirchmayer U, Katsouyanni K, et al. (2007) Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design. Environ Heal 6:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moustris KP, Nastos PT, Paliatsos AG (2013) One-day prediction of biometeorological conditions in a Mediterranean urban environment using artificial neural networks modeling. Adv Meteorol. doi: 10.1155/2013/538508 Google Scholar
  39. Nastos PT, Kapsomenakis J (2015) Regional climate model simulations of extreme air temperature in Greece. Abnormal or common records in the future climate? Atmos Res 152:43–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nastos PT, Matzarakis A (2006) Weather impacts on respiratory infections in Athens, Greece. Int J Biometeorol 50(6):358–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nastos PT, Matzarakis A (2012) The effect of air temperature and human thermal indices on mortality in Athens, Greece. Theor Appl Climatol 108(3–4):591–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nastos PT, Matzarakis A (2013) Human bioclimatic conditions, trends, and variability in the Athens University Campus. Greece Advances in Meteorology. doi: 10.1155/2013/976510 Google Scholar
  43. Nikolopoulou M, Baker N, Steemers K (2001) Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: understanding the human parameter. Sol Energy 70:227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nikolopoulou M, Lykoudis S (2006) Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: analysis across different European countries. Build Environ 41(11):1455–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oke TR (1988) Street design and urban canopy layer climate. Energy and Buildings 11:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Robitu M, Musy M, Inard C, Groleau D (2006) Modeling the influence of vegetation and water pond on urban microclimate. Sol Energy 80:435–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schwartz J, Samet JM, Patz JA (2004) Hospital admissions for heart disease: the effects of temperature and humidity. Epidemiology 15(6):755–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shashua-Bar L, Hofmann H (2003) Geometry and orientation aspects in passive cooling of canyon streets with trees. Energy and Buildings 35:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Streiling S, Matzarakis A (2003) Influence of singular trees and small clusters of trees on the bioclimate of a city – a case study. J Arboric 29:309–316Google Scholar
  50. Svensson M, Eliasson I (2002) Diurnal air temperatures in built-up areas in relation to urban planning. Landsc Urban Plan 61:37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thorsson S, Honjo T, Lindberg F, Eliasson I, Lim EM (2007) Thermal comfort and outdoor activity in Japanese urban public places. Environ Behav 39(5):660–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Thorsson S, Lindqvist M, Lindqvist S (2004) Thermal bioclimatic conditions and patterns of behaviour in an urban park in göteborg, Sweden. Int J Biometeorol 48(3):149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Troen I, Petersen EL (1989) European wind atlas. Risø National Laboratory, RoskildeGoogle Scholar
  54. Unger J (2009) Connection between urban heat island and sky view factor approximated by a software tool on a 3D urban database. International Journal of Environmental Pollution 36:59–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Xi TY, Li Q, Mochida A, Meng QL (2012) Study on the outdoor thermal environment and thermal comfort around campus clusters in subtropical urban areas. Build Environ 52:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yang F, Lau SY, Qian F (2011) Thermal comfort effects of urban design strategies in high-rise urban environments in a sub-tropical climate. Archit Sci Rev 54(4):285–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yilmaz S, Toy S, Irmak MA, Yilmaz H (2007) Determination of climatic differences in three different land uses in the city of Erzurum, Turkey. Build Environ 42(4):1604–1612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Watson ID, Johnson GT (1987) Graphical estimation of sky view-factors in urban environments. J Climatol 7:193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, Department of Geography and Climatology, Faculty of Geology and GeoenvironmentUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations