International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 59, Issue 7, pp 783–789 | Cite as

Clinical and biochemical effects of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese and diabetic patients: a pilot open study

  • Antonella FioravantiEmail author
  • Przemysław Adamczyk
  • Nicola Antonio Pascarelli
  • Chiara Giannitti
  • Renato Urso
  • Michał Tołodziecki
  • Irena Ponikowska
Original Paper


Obesity is a major risk factor for arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type 2 diabetes. Spa therapy has long been used for treating obesity and its comorbidities. Enlargement of adipose tissue has been linked to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion and adipose tissue inflammation. Adipokines are currently investigated as potential drug targets in these conditions. Our primary aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The secondary aim was to examine whether this combined program influences the response of serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Fifty obese males were enrolled and 21 of these featured a type 2 diabetes. During the 3-week period of the study, the patients were on a 1,000-kcal diet and were involved in mineral bath and total body’s mud-pack applications (15 procedures). Patients were assessed at baseline and at the end of the therapy for clinical and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia, and adipokines). We showed that a 3-week program of spa therapy in obese patients induced significant decrease of body weight, body mass index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemia, and serum levels of leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. So, a cycle of mud-bath therapy associated with a controlled diet may be a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes decreasing body weight and many risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.


Obesity Type 2 diabetes Spa therapy Adipokines Weight Body mass index 



Tumor necrosis factor


High-sensitivity C-reactive protein


Body mass index


Sodium chloride


High-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Enzyme immunoassay


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


Low molecular weight


High molecular weight


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Copyright information

© ISB 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonella Fioravanti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Przemysław Adamczyk
    • 2
  • Nicola Antonio Pascarelli
    • 1
  • Chiara Giannitti
    • 1
  • Renato Urso
    • 3
  • Michał Tołodziecki
    • 4
  • Irena Ponikowska
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Rheumatology UnitUniversity of Siena, “Le Scotte” PoliclinicoSienaItaly
  2. 2.Thermal HospitalCiechocinekPoland
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Pharmacology Unit “Giorgio Segre”University of SienaSienaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Balneology and Physical Medicine Collegium Medicum in BydgoszczUMKBydgoszczPoland

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