International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 58, Issue 6, pp 1369–1381 | Cite as

Quantification of climate tourism potential of Croatia based on measured data and regional modeling

  • Caroline Brosy
  • Ksenija ZaninovicEmail author
  • Andreas Matzarakis
Original Paper


Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in Croatia. The Adriatic coast is a popular travel destination for tourists, especially during the summer months. During their activities, tourists are affected by atmospheric conditions and therefore by weather and climate. Therefore, it is important to have reliable information about thermal conditions as well as their impacts on human beings. Here, the climate tourism potential of Croatia is presented and quantified on the basis of three selected stations in different climatic regions. The physiologically equivalent temperature is used for analysis as well as other climatic parameters relevant for tourism and recreation. The results already point to hot conditions for outdoor activities in summer during afternoons, especially along the coast but also for continental regions, resulting in a reduction of the climate tourism potential. In the future, this trend looks set to increase, possibly leading to a changing tourism sector in Croatia requiring adaptation and new strategies.


Climate tourism potential Croatia Physiologically equivalent temperature Thermal stress CTIS RayMan RegCM3 



We acknowledge the DHMZ Climate modelling group for providing the RegCM3 data and for useful suggestions and discussions. This research study is supported by the EU-sponsored PF7 project CLIM-RUN (Grant Agreement No. 265192).


  1. Abegg B (1996) Klimaänderung und Tourismus. Schlussbericht NFP 31. vdf Hochschul-verlag AG an der ETH ZürichGoogle Scholar
  2. Amelung B, Viner D (2007) The vulnerability to climate change of the Mediterranean as a tourist destination. In: Amelung B, Blazejczyk K, Matzarakis A (eds) Climate change and tourism–assessment and coping strategies. pp 41–54Google Scholar
  3. Branković Č, Patarčić M, Güttler I, Srnec L (2012) Near-future climate change over Europe with focus on Croatia in an ensemble of regional climate model simulations. Clim Res 52:227–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Çalişkan O, Çiçek I, Matzarakis A (2012) The climate and bioclimate of Bursa (Turkey) from the perspective of tourism. Theor Appl Climatol 107:417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Croatian Bureau of Statistics (2012a) Statistical yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2012Google Scholar
  6. Croatian Bureau of Statistics (2012b) Monthly statistical report, Number 12 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. De Freitas CR (2001) Theory, concepts and methods in climate tourism research. In: Matzarakis A, de Freitas CR (eds) Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Climate, Tourism and Recreation. pp 3–20Google Scholar
  8. De Freitas CR (2003) Tourism climatology: evaluating environmental information for decision making and business planning in the recreation and tourism sector. Int J Biometeorol 48:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Endler C, Matzarakis A (2011a) Climate and tourism in the Black Forest during the warm season. Int J Biometeorol 55:173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Endler C, Matzarakis A (2011b) Climatic and tourism related changes in the Black Forest: winter season. Int J Biometeorol 55:339–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farajzadeh H, Matzarakis A (2009) Quantification of climate for tourism in the northwest of Iran. Meteorol Appl 16:545–555Google Scholar
  12. Farajzadeh H, Matzarakis A (2012) Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions in Ourmieh Lake, Iran. Theor Appl Climatol 107:451–459Google Scholar
  13. Gómez M (2004) An evaluation of the tourist potential of the climate in Catalonia (Spain): a regional study. Geogr Ann 86A:249–264Google Scholar
  14. Hall DR (1998) Tourism development and sustainability issues in Central and South-eastern Europe. Tour Manag 19(5):423–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Höppe P (1999) The physiological equivalent temperature—a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. Int J Biometeorol 43:71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. IPCC (2007) In: Solomom S, Quin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the scientific base–contribution of working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  17. Jasmina G (2007) Strategy of tourism in Croatia for competing on the European tourism market. Young Econ J 1(9):51–58Google Scholar
  18. Kampstra P (2008) Beanplot: a boxplot alternative forvisual comparison of distribution. J Stat Softw 28:1–9Google Scholar
  19. Lin TP, Matzarakis A (2008) Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan. Int J Biometeorol 51:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Matzarakis A (2006) Weather- and climate-related information for tourism. Tour Hosp Plan Dev 3:99–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matzarakis A (2007) Assessment method for climate and tourism based on daily data. In: Matzarakis A, de Freitas CR, Scott D (eds) Developments in tourism climatology. pp 52–58Google Scholar
  22. Matzarakis A (2010) Climate change: temporal and spatial dimension of adaptation possibilities at regional and local scale. In: Schott C (ed) Tourism and the implications of climate change: issues and actions, Emerald Group. Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, 3:237–259Google Scholar
  23. Matzarakis A, Amelung B (2008) Physiologically equivalent temperature as indicator for impacts of climate change on thermal comfort of humans. In: Thomson MC et al (eds) Seasonal forecasts, climatic change and human health. Advances in global change research 30. Springer, Berlin, pp 161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matzarakis A, Mayer H (1996) Another kind of environmental stress: thermal stress. WHO collaborating centre for air quality management and air pollution control. Newsletter 18:7–10Google Scholar
  25. Matzarakis A, Mayer H, Iziomon MG (1999) Applications of a universal thermal index: physiological equivalent temperature. Int J Biometeorol 43:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Matzarakis A, Rutz F, Mayer H (2007) Modeling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments—application of the RayMan model. Int J Biometeorol 51:323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Matzarakis A, Rutz F, Mayer H (2010a) Modeling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model. Int J Biometeorol 54:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matzarakis A, Schneevoigt T, Matuschek O, Endler C (2010) Transfer of climate information for tourism and recreation—the CTIS software. In: Matzarakis A, Mayer H, Chmielewski FM (eds) Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Biometeorology. Berichte des Meteorologischen Instituts der Universität Freiburg, 20: 392–397Google Scholar
  29. Mayer H, Höppe P (1987) Thermal comfort of man in different urban environments. Theor Appl Climatol 38:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mayer H, Matzarakis A (1999) Die Richtlinie VDI 3787 Blatt 2 "Methoden zur human-biometeorologischen Bewertung von Klima- und Lufthygiene für die Stadt- und Regionalplanung, Teil I: Klima". Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN Normenausschuss. Schriftenreihe Band 31:53–62Google Scholar
  31. Mieczkowski Z (1985) The tourism climate index: a method for evaluating world climates for tourism. Can Geogr 29:220–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pal JS, Giorgi F, Bi X, Elguindi N, Solmon F, Gao X, Rauscher SA, Francisco R, Zakey A, Winter J, Ashfaq M, Syed FS, Bell JL, Diffenbaugh NS, Karmacharya J, Konaré A, Martinez D, da Rocha RP, Sloan LC, Steiner AL (2007) Regional climate modelling for the developing world: the ICTP RegCM3 and RegCNET. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 88:1395–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Perry AH (2000) Impacts of climate change on tourism in the Mediterranean: adaptive responses. 35.2000, Fondazione Eni Enrico MatteiGoogle Scholar
  34. Perry AH (2001) More heat and drought–can Mediterranean tourism survive and prosper? In: Matzarakis A, de Freitas CR (eds) Proceedings of the first international workshop on climate, tourism and recreation. pp 35–40Google Scholar
  35. R Development Core Team (2010) R: a language andenvironment for statistical computing. R Foundation forStatistical Computing, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  36. Rivera L (2005) After nationalism: tourism and the production of post-war Croatian identity. The annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  37. Scott D (2011) Why sustainable tourism must address climate change. J Sustain Tour 19:17–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Scott D, de Freitas CR, Matzarakis A (2009) Adaptation in the tourism and recreation sector. Biometeorology for adaptation to climate variability and change. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., 2009Google Scholar
  39. Shiue I, Matzarakis A (2011) Climate and tourism in the hunter region, Australia in the early 21st century. Int J Biometeorol 55:565–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. UNWTO (2007) Climate change and tourism—responding to global challenges. Summary. Joint UNWTO, UNEP, WMO publication issued October 2007Google Scholar
  41. WTTC (2012) Travel and tourism—economic impact 2012, Croatia (, 5 February 2013)
  42. Zaninović K (ed) (2008) Klimatski atlas Hrvatske Climate atlas of Croatia 1961–1990, 1971–2000, ZT Zagraf, ZagrebGoogle Scholar
  43. Zaninović K, Matzarakis A (2007a) Biometeorological basis for Croatian tourism. In: Matzarakis A, de Freitas CR, Scott D (eds) Developments in tourism climatology. pp 24–28Google Scholar
  44. Zaninović K, Matzarakis A (2007b) Climatic changes in thermal comfort at the Adriatic coast. In: Amelung B, Blazejczyk K, Matzarakis A (eds) Climate change and tourism: assessment and coping strategies. pp 155–164Google Scholar
  45. Zaninović K, Matzarakis A (2009) The bioclimatological leaflet as a means conveying climatological information to tourists and the tourism industry. Int J Biometeorol 53:369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline Brosy
    • 1
  • Ksenija Zaninovic
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andreas Matzarakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Meteorology and ClimatologyAlbert-Ludwigs-University of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ)ZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations