This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.
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The authors thankfully acknowledge the invaluable information and materials provided by Mr. Randy Lantz, Ms. Jennifer Niemeyer and Prof. Diana Žele. The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia is greatly acknowledged for providing all required facilities to complete this study successfully.
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Gomes, C. Lightning safety of animals. Int J Biometeorol 56, 1011–1023 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-011-0515-5
- Lightning injury
- Animal safety
- Step potential
- Side flashes
- Direct strikes
- Preventive measures