Advertisement

International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 224–231 | Cite as

Meteorological conditions and sports deaths at school in Japan, 1993–1998

  • Akio HoshiEmail author
  • Yutaka Inaba
Original Article

Abstract

We evaluated the association between meteorological conditions and sports deaths at elementary, junior high and senior high schools. Data were collected from attached documents such as accident reports and death certificate records in the National Agency for the Advancement of Sports and Health in Japan. Evaluation of seasonal variation showed a significant concentration of deaths from heat disorders and drowning in July and August. When heart disease was evaluated according to the sports situation, significant seasonal variation with a high number of deaths in September–December was observed in sports events. Concerning circadian variation, deaths from heart disease showed a high peak at 10:00–11:00 a.m. in physical education classes and sports events, and at 2:00–5:00 p.m. in sports club activities. Analysis using a multiple logistic model showed a significantly lower odds ratio from heart disease and a significantly higher odds ratio from heat disorders at a wet bulb globe temperature of ≥21.0°C than at <21.0°C. According to the sports situation in heart disease, the odds ratio in sports club activities was significantly lower on days with rainfall than on days without rainfall. According to the school categories in heart diseases, the odds ratio in girls in elementary school was significantly higher than that in boys, but the odds ratio in girls in senior high school was significantly lower than that in boys.

Keywords

Sports deaths Meteorological conditions School Japan 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the BioClima Research Committee in 2001. We express deep gratitude to the Safety Division, National Agency for the Advancement of Sports and Health in Japan for permission to access data, and to the IT Project Promotion Division, METOCEAN Environment Inc., for the supply of meteorological data

References

  1. Arntz H-R, Willich SN, Oeff M, Brüggemann Th, Stern R, Heinzmann A, Matenaer B, Schröder R (1993) Circadian variation of sudden cardiac death reflects age-related variability in ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 88:2284–2289Google Scholar
  2. Cantu RC (1992) Congenital cardiovascular disease: the major cause of athletic death in high school and college. Med Sci Sports Exerc Med 24:279–280Google Scholar
  3. Cantu RC, Mueller FO (1999) Fatalities and catastrophic injuries in high school and college sports 1982–1997. Physician Sports Med 27:35–48Google Scholar
  4. Gemmell I, McLoone P, Boddy FA, Dickinson GJ, Watt GCM (2000) Seasonal variation in mortality in Scotland. Int J Epidemiol 29:274–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gorjanc MJ, Flanders WD, Van Derslice J, Hersh J, Malilay J (1999) Effects of temperature and snowfall on mortality in Pennsylvania. Am J Epidemiol 149:1152–1160Google Scholar
  6. Hanson PG, Zimmerman SW (1979) Exertional heat stroke in novice runners. JAMA 242:154–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hjalmarson A, Gilpin EA, Nicod P, Dittrich H, Henning H, Engler R, Blacky AR, Smith SC Jr, Ross J Jr (1989) Differing circadian patterns of symptom onset in subgroups of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 80:267–275Google Scholar
  8. Hoshi A, Nakai S, Inaba Y (1999) Biometeorological analysis of the sports deaths in the recent 3 years (in Japanese). Jpn J Biometeor 36:113–118Google Scholar
  9. Hoshi A, Inaba Y (2000) Sudden cardiac deaths during exercise in school (1986–1995) (in Japanese). Jpn J Fitness Med 49:503–512Google Scholar
  10. Hoshi A, Inaba Y (2002a) External causes of mortality during exercise in school, 1986–1998 (in Japanese). Jpn J Phys Fitness Sports Med 51:85–92Google Scholar
  11. Hoshi A, Inaba Y (2002b) Mortality rate of heat disorder analyzed from the place of occurrence using vital statistics in Japan (in Japanese). Jpn J Biometeor 39:37–46Google Scholar
  12. Kawahara T, Nakai S, Siraki K, Morimoto T, Asayama M (1994) Guide book of prevention of heat stroke in sports (in Japanese). Japan Armature Sports Association, Tokyo, pp 4–47Google Scholar
  13. Klues HG, Schiffers A, Maron BJ (1995) Phenotypic spectrum and patterns of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 26:1699–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kuroyanagi M, Matsuo Y, Tokudome S, Kumagaya T (1997) Sudden death during students exercise (in Japanese). Tokyo Metrop Gov Pub Health Acad J 98:200–201Google Scholar
  15. Lampert R, Rosenfeld L, Batsford W, Lee F, McPherson C (1994) Circadian variation of sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients with coronary artery disease and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Circulation 90:241–247Google Scholar
  16. Maron BJ, Shirani J, Polic LC, Mathenge R, Roberts WC, Mueller FO (1996) Sudden death in young competitive athletes: clinical, demographic, and pathological profiles. JAMA 276:199–204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Minard CD, Belding H, Kingston JR (1957) Prevention of heat casualties. JAMA 165:1813–1818Google Scholar
  18. Muller JE, Stone PH, Turi ZG, Rutherford JD, Czeisler CA, Parker C, Poole WK, Passamani E, Roberts R, Robertson T, Sobel BE, Willerson JT, Braunwald E, MILIS Study Group (1985) Circadian variation in the frequency of onset of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 313:1315–1322Google Scholar
  19. Muller JE, Ludmer PL, Willich SN, Tofler GH, Aylmer G, Klangos I, Stone PH (1987) Circadian variation in the frequency of sudden cardiac death. Circulation 75:131–138Google Scholar
  20. National Agency for the Advancement of Sports and Health in Japan (1996–2001) Deaths and injuries under school supervision (in Japanese). Bunnshodo, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  21. Roger JH (1977) A significance test for cyclic trends in incidence data. Biometrika 61:152–155Google Scholar
  22. Siscovic DS, Weiss NS, Fletcher RH (1994) The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise. N Engl J Med 311:874–877Google Scholar
  23. Sugishita Y, Matsuda M, Iida K, Koshinaga J, Ueno M (1983) Sudden death and exercise, labor (in Japanese). Clin Adult Dis 13:873–877Google Scholar
  24. Sutton JR, Bar-Or O (1980) Thermal illness in fun running. Am Heart J 100:778–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tanaka H, Shinjo M, Tsukuma H, Kawazuma Y, Shimoji S, Kinoshita N, Morita T (2000) Seasonal variation in mortality from ischemic disease and cerebrovascular disease in Okinawa and Osaka: the possible role of air temperature. J Epidemiol 10:392–398Google Scholar
  26. Tokudome S (1986) Sudden death in sports (in Japanese). J Clin Exp Med 137:442–444Google Scholar
  27. Watanabe G (1971) Basic environmental hygiene (in Japanese). Asakurashoten, Tokyo, p 27Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for OdontologyNippon Dental UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Environmental HealthJuntendo University School of MedicineTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations