Emission sources and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air during heating and non-heating periods in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia

  • Jelena Radonić
  • Nataša Jovčić Gavanski
  • Miroslav Ilić
  • Srđan Popov
  • Sanja Batić Očovaj
  • Mirjana Vojinović Miloradov
  • Maja Turk Sekulić
Original Paper


The paper presents the assessment of emission sources and health risk of 16 PAHs in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, with developed oil, food, chemical and cement industry. Although the observed region has been previously studied with regard to the occurrence of PAHs in ambient air, the sources of emission and health risk using multivariate statistical methods have never been studied before. The research was conducted during the heating and non-heating periods at three sampling sites located in industrial, residential and high-traffic area. The samples were collected by high-volume air sampler and analysed using the GC/MS system. The data were processed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and cluster analysis. To assess the cancer-risk of PAHs, potency equivalency factor approach was used. The results of PMF analysis have indicated that significant sources of PAH emissions are industrial processes and diesel combustion during the non-heating, and coal combustion, heating plants and diesel combustion during the heating season. Cluster analysis of experimental data has confirmed the results obtained using the PMF method. Estimated values of lifetime lung cancer risk were higher than those set by the World Health Organization and US Environmental Protection Agency which indicates that cancer risk due to exposure to PAHs in ambient air exists in both time periods on the territory of Novi Sad.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Positive matrix factorization Cluster analysis Cancer risk assessment 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jelena Radonić
    • 1
  • Nataša Jovčić Gavanski
    • 2
  • Miroslav Ilić
    • 3
  • Srđan Popov
    • 1
  • Sanja Batić Očovaj
    • 4
  • Mirjana Vojinović Miloradov
    • 1
  • Maja Turk Sekulić
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Technical SciencesUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  2. 2.Air SerbiaBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.The Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of VojvodinaSremska KamenicaSerbia
  4. 4.Center for Applied StatisticsUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia

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