# Frequency based imputation of precipitation

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## Abstract

Changing climate and precipitation patterns make the estimation of precipitation, which exhibits two-dimensional and sometimes chaotic behavior, more challenging. In recent decades, numerous data-driven methods have been developed and applied to estimate precipitation; however, these methods suffer from the use of one-dimensional approaches, lack generality, require the use of neighboring stations and have low sensitivity. This paper aims to implement the first generally applicable, highly sensitive two-dimensional data-driven model of precipitation. This model, named frequency based imputation (FBI), relies on non-continuous monthly precipitation time series data. It requires no determination of input parameters and no data preprocessing, and it provides multiple estimations (from the most to the least probable) of each missing data unit utilizing the series itself. A total of 34,330 monthly total precipitation observations from 70 stations in 21 basins within Turkey were used to assess the success of the method by removing and estimating observation series in annual increments. Comparisons with the expectation maximization and multiple linear regression models illustrate that the FBI method is superior in its estimation of monthly precipitation. This paper also provides a link to the software code for the FBI method.

## Keywords

Frequency based imputation Data-driven modelling Precipitation Estimation of missing data## Notes

### Acknowledgements

I would like to thank The General Directorate of the State Hydraulic Works of Turkey for providing the data used in this study and the editors and reviewers for their valuable contributions and comments, which greatly improved the manuscript.

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