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Leaf transcriptome of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) infected by Ganoderma boninense

  • Chai-Ling HoEmail author
  • Yung-Chie Tan
  • Keat-Ai Yeoh
  • Wei-Kang Lee
  • Ahmad-Kamal Ghazali
  • Wai-Yan Yee
  • Chee-Choong Hoh
Original Article


Key message

Oil palm leaves prioritize defense during basal stem rot.


Oil palm is susceptible to Ganoderma infection which causes basal stem rot (BSR). Induced defense gene profiles in oil palm leaves will assist the identification of markers for detection of infected oil palms. In this study, we have sequenced the mRNA samples from the leaves of G. boninense infected oil palm seedlings (LG) and in control treatment (LC). Differential gene expression analysis showed 711 and 482 genes that were up-and down-regulated more than fourfold in LG, respectively, compared to the LC. Differential gene expression analyses revealed the modulation of oil palm genes involved in defense response such as chitinases, glucanases, and thaumatin-like proteins that showed up-regulation in LG. In addition, genes for enzymes related to the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenes were up-regulated, while many genes involved in photosynthesis were found to be suppressed in LG. Our findings provided information on how infected oil palm leaves diverting their resources into defense at the cost of other biological processes, contributing towards identification of candidate markers for the detection of infected oil palms.


Basal stem rot Ganoderma Leaf Oil palm Global gene expression 



This project was funded by Putra Grant (GP-IPB/2013/9413601). Y-C Tan was supported by the National Science Fellowship (NSF) from MOSTI. We would like to acknowledge Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Bangi, Malaysia, for providing the G. boninense strain PER71; Taman Pertanian Universiti Putra Malaysia, for providing the glass house facilities; Sime Darby Sdn Bhd. (previously Golden Hope Sdn Bhd.) for providing the oil palm seedlings.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

468_2019_1830_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (150 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 149 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chai-Ling Ho
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Yung-Chie Tan
    • 2
    • 3
  • Keat-Ai Yeoh
    • 2
  • Wei-Kang Lee
    • 1
  • Ahmad-Kamal Ghazali
    • 3
  • Wai-Yan Yee
    • 3
  • Chee-Choong Hoh
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Tropical AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Codon Genomics S/BSeri KembanganMalaysia
  4. 4.Institute of Plantation StudiesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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