pp 1–17 | Cite as

Wood anatomy variability under contrasted environmental conditions of common deciduous and evergreen species from central African forests

  • Yegor TarelkinEmail author
  • Koen Hufkens
  • Stephan Hahn
  • Jan Van den Bulcke
  • Jean-François Bastin
  • Bhely Angoboy Ilondea
  • Olivier Debeir
  • Joris Van Acker
  • Hans Beeckman
  • Charles De Cannière
Original Article


Key message

Wood density profiles revealed significant differences in wood formation along a precipitation gradient in the Congo Basin. The response of trees to climate change varies depending on leaf phenology properties.


Tropical forests face increasing pressures due to climate change and yet, the response of trees to varying climate conditions remains poorly understood. In the present study, we aim to fill some gaps by comparing the leaf phenology and the pith-to-bark wood anatomical variability of 13 common tree species of the Democratic Republic of Congo among three sites presenting contrasted rainfall regimes. We measured pith-to-bark density profiles on which we applied wavelet analyses to extract three descriptors, which we further used as proxies to describe and compare wood anatomical variability. They describe the growth periodicity, regularity and the amplitude of variations of the anatomical patterns. Our results show that evergreen species tend to have significantly higher anatomical variability where rainfall seasonality is more pronounced. Deciduous species, in spite of shedding leaves for longer periods in drier sites, did not show significant differences in their anatomical variability. The analyses of density profiles and phenology records suggest that the seasonality of precipitation influences both leaf phenology and cambial activity. The high intra-site variability in phenology and anatomy suggests that site-related micro-climate conditions also influence cambial activity.


Wood density Wood anatomy Leaf phenology Wavelet analysis Tropical tree growth Climate change 



We are grateful to the FNRS-FRIA (FC 1371) and the Jaumotte-Demoulin foundation (Van Buuren funds) for supporting and funding, to the WWF DRC (Bruno Perodeau, Jean Mobuli), NGO MbouMonTour (Jean-Christophe Bokika), UniKis (Hippolyte Nshimba, Sylvain Kumba) and ERAIFT (Baudouin Michel, Bhely Angoboy) for logistical support, to Jean-Claude Cerre, Stijn Willen (UGent, Belgium), Thomas El Berkani and Manoe De Neck for assistance with sample preparation and scanning, to Maaike De Ridder (RMCA, Belgium) for advice, to the local community chiefs from villages Nkala, Mpelu, Yoko and Luki for authorizations, and particularly, to Pala, Mora, Alpha, Ridjo, Mbambi and Placide for fieldwork assistance. Dr. Koen Hufkens acknowledges support from the NSF Macrosystems Biology programme (award EF-1065029). Finally, we thank Pr. Adeline Fayolle from ULg for her help during the redaction of the manuscript.

Author contributions

YT, KH, JVB, JFB, HB and CC planned and designed the research. YT, JDB and KH collected data. YT, SH and OD performed experiments. YT, KH, JB, JFB and CC analysed and interpreted data. YT and KH wrote the manuscript. All the co-authors revised the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

468_2019_1826_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (8.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 8661 KB)


  1. Allen C, Macalady A, Chenchouni H, Bachelet D, McDowell N, Vennetier M, Kitzberger T, Rigling A, Breshears D, Hogg E et al (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. For Ecol Manag 259:660–684Google Scholar
  2. Alvim P (1964) Tree growth periodicity in tropical climates. In: Zimmerman M (ed) The formation of wood in forest trees. Academic Press, New York, pp 479–495Google Scholar
  3. Babst F, Bouriaud O, Papale D, Gielen B, Janssens I, Nikinmaa E, Ibrom A, Wu J, Bernhofer C, Köstner B et al (2014) Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites. New Phytol 201:1289–1303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldeck C, Asner G, Martin R, Anderson C, Knapp D, Kellner J, Wright S (2015) Operational tree species mapping in a diverse tropical forest with airborne imaging spectroscopy. PLOS ONE 10:e0118403PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bastin JF, Fayolle A, Tarelkin Y, Van den Bulcke J, de Haulleville T, Mortier F, Beeckman H, Van Acker J, Serckx A, Bogaert J, De Cannière C (2015a) Wood specific gravity variations and biomass of central african tree species: the simple choice of the outer wood. Plos One 10:e0142146PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bastin JF, Barbier N, Réjou-Méchain M, Fayolle A, Gourlet-Fleury S, Maniatis D, de Haulleville T et al (2015b) Seeing Central African forests through their largest trees. Sci Rep 5:13156PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Batschelet E (1981) Circular statistics in biology. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Beeckman H (2016) Wood anatomy and trait-based ecology. IAWA Journal 37:127–151Google Scholar
  9. Benedet F, Doucet J, Fayolle A, Gourlet-Fleury S, Vincke D. Cofortraits, African plant traits information database. version 1.0. [accessed 28 September 2016]
  10. Biudes M, Vourlitis G, Machado N, de Arruda P, Neves G, de Almeida Lobo F, Neale C, de Souza Nogueira J (2015) Patterns of energy exchange for tropical ecosystems across a climate gradient in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Agric For Meteorol 202:112–124Google Scholar
  11. Bonan G (2008) Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320:1444–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Borchert R (1999) Climatic periodicity, phenology, and cambium activity in tropical dry forest trees. IAWA J 20:239–247Google Scholar
  13. Borchert R, Calle Z, Strahler A, Baertschi A, Magill R, Broadhead J, Kamau J, Njoroge J, Muthuri C (2015) Insolation and photoperiodic control of tree development near the equator. New Phytol 205:7–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brienen R, Schöngart J, Zuidema P (2016) Tree rings in the tropics: insights into the ecology and climate sensitivity of tropical trees. In: Tropical Tree Physiology. Springer International Publishing. 439–461Google Scholar
  15. Briffa K, Melvin T (2011) A closer look at regional curve standardization of tree-ring records: justification of the need, a warning of some pitfalls, and suggested improvements in its application. In: Dendroclimatology. Springer Netherlands. 113–145Google Scholar
  16. Brodribb T (2017) Progressing from ‘functional’ to mechanistic traits. New Phytol 215:9–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bullmore E, Fadili J, Breakspear M, Salvador R, Suckling J, Brammer M (2003) Wavelets and statistical analysis of functional magnetic resonance images of the human brain. Stat Methods Med Res 12(5):375–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Callado C, Barros C, Costa C, da Silva Neto S, Scarano F (2001) Anatomical features of growth rings in flood-prone trees of the Atlantic rain forest in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. IAWA J 22:29–42Google Scholar
  19. Carlquist S (1988) Comparative wood anatomy. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  20. Cassart B, Angbonga Basia A, Titeux H, Andivia E, Ponette Q (2016) Contrasting patterns of carbon sequestration between Gilbertiodendron dewevrei monodominant forests and Scorodophloeus zenkeri mixed forests in the Central Congo basin. Plant Soil 414:309–326Google Scholar
  21. Chave J, Condit R, Muller-Landau H, Thomas S, Ashton P, Bunyavejchewin S, Co L, Dattaraja H, Davies S, Esufali S et al (2008) Assessing evidence for a pervasive alteration in tropical tree communities. PLoS Biol 6:e45PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis S, Swenson N, Zanne A (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecol Lett 12:351–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Couralet C, Sterck F, Sass-Klaassen U, Van Acker J, Beeckman H (2010) Species-specific growth responses to climate variations in understory trees of a central african rain forest. Biotropica 42:503–511Google Scholar
  24. Couralet C, Van den Bulcke J, Ngoma L, Van Acker J, Beeckman H (2013) Phenology in functional groups of central African rainforest trees. J Trop For Sci, 361–374Google Scholar
  25. Davies S, Ashton P (1999) Phenology and fecundity in 11 sympatric pioneer species of macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in borneo. Am J Bot 86:1786–1795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. De Mil T (2017) Intra-annual to multi-decadal xylem traits in a tropical moist semi-deciduous forest of Central Africa. Ghent University. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, GhentGoogle Scholar
  27. De Mil T, Tarelkin Y, Hahn S, Hubau W, Deklerck V, Debeir O, Van den Bulcke J (2018) Wood density profiles and their corresponding tissue fractions in tropical angiosperm trees. Forests 9(12):763Google Scholar
  28. De Frenne P, Verheyen K (2016) Weather stations lack forest data. Science 351:234–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. De Ridder F, Schoukens J, Pintelon R, Gillikin DP, André L, Baeyens W, de Brauwere A, Dehairs F (2004) Decoding non-linear growth rates in biogenic environmental archives. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 5:Q12015. Google Scholar
  30. De Ridder M, Van den Bulcke J, Vansteenkiste D, Van Loo D, Dierick M, Masschaele B, De Witte Y, Mannes D, Lehmann E, Beeckman H et al (2011) High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba. Ann Bot 107:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. De Ridder M, Trouet V, Van den Bulcke J, Hubau W, Van Acker J, Beeckman H (2013) A tree-ring based comparison of Terminalia superba climate–growth relationships in West and Central Africa. Trees 27:1225–1238Google Scholar
  32. De Mil T, Vannoppen A, Beeckman H, Van Acker J, Van den Bulcke J (2016) A field-to-desktop toolchain for X-ray CT densitometry enables tree ring analysis. Ann Bot 117:1187–1196PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. De Micco V, Campelo F, Cherubini P, Battipaglia G, Bräuning A, Grabner M, De Luis M (2016) Intra-annual density fluctuations in tree rings: how, when, where, and why? IAWA Journal 37:232–259Google Scholar
  34. Dierick M, Masschaele B, Hoorebeke L (2004) Octopus, a fast and user-friendly tomographic reconstruction package developed in LabView®. Meas Sci Technol 15:1366–1370Google Scholar
  35. Dierick M, Van Loo D, Masschaele B, Van den Bulcke J, Van Acker J, Cnudde V, Van Hoorebeke L (2014) Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect B 324:35–40Google Scholar
  36. Dong S, Davies S, Ashton P, Bunyavejchewin S, Supardi M, Kassim A, Tan S, Moorcroft P (2012) Variability in solar radiation and temperature explains observed patterns and trends in tree growth rates across four tropical forests. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279: 3923–3931Google Scholar
  37. Dunne K, Willmott C (2000) Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil (Dunne). ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Accessed 15 Mar 2017
  38. FAO (2007) Digital soil map of the world. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  39. FAO (2016) State of the World’s forests. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  40. Farge M (1992) Wavelet transforms and their applications to turbulence. Ann Rev Fluid Mech 24(1):395–458Google Scholar
  41. Fichtler E, Worbes M (2012) Wood anatomical variables in tropical trees and their relation to site conditions and individual tree morphology. Iawa Journal 33(2):119–140Google Scholar
  42. Fick SE, Hijmans RJ (2017)) WorldClim 2: new 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol 37(12):4302–4315Google Scholar
  43. Fonti P, Von Arx G, García-González I, Eilmann B, Sass-Klaassen U, Gärtner H, Eckstein D (2010) Studying global change through investigation of the plastic responses of xylem anatomy in tree rings. New Phytol 185:42–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gartner B (1995) Plant stems: physiology and functional morphology. Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  45. Greenwood S, Ruiz-Benito P, Martínez-Vilalta J, Lloret F, Kitzberger T, Allen C, Fensham R, Laughlin D, Kattge J, Bönisch G et al (2017) Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area. Ecol Lett 20:539–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Groenendijk P, Sass-Klaassen U, Bongers F, Zuidema P (2014) Potential of tree-ring analysis in a wet tropical forest: a case study on 22 commercial tree species in Central Africa. For Ecol Manag 323:65–78Google Scholar
  47. Haralick R, Shanmugam K, Dinstein I (1973) Textural features for image classification. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern SMC-3:610–621Google Scholar
  48. Hudson I, Keatley M, Kang I (2011) Wavelet characterization of eucalypt flowering and the influence of climate. Environ Ecol Stat 18(3):513–533Google Scholar
  49. IPCC (2013) Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK et al (eds), Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  50. James R, Washington R, Rowell D (2013) Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests. Philos Trans R Soc B: Biol Sci 368:20120298–20120298Google Scholar
  51. Kearsley E, de Haulleville T, Hufkens K, Kidimbu A, Toirambe B, Baert G, Huygens D, Kebede Y, Defourny P, Bogaert J et al (2013) Conventional tree height–diameter relationships significantly overestimate aboveground carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin. Nat Commun 4:2269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Koch M, Marković D (2007) Evidences for climate change in Germany over the 20th century from the stochastic analysis of hydro-meteorological time-series. In MODSIM 2007 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, Christchurch, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  53. Larson PR (2012) The vascular cambium: development and structure. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  54. Lau K, Weng H (1995) Climate signal detection using wavelet transform: how to make a time series sing. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 76(12):2391–2402Google Scholar
  55. Lewis S, Lloyd J, Sitch S, Mitchard E, Laurance W (2009) Changing ecology of tropical forests: evidence and drivers. Annual review of ecology. Evolut Syst 40:529–549Google Scholar
  56. Lisi C, Roig F, Voigt A, Maria V, Tomazello Fo M, Ferreira-Fedele L, Botosso P (2008) Tree-ring formation, radial increment periodicity, and phenology of tree species from a seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southeast Brazil. IAWA J 29:189–207Google Scholar
  57. Lu X, Liu R, Liu J, Liang S (2007) Removal of noise by wavelet method to generate high quality temporal data of terrestrial MODIS products. Photogr Eng Rem Sens 73(10):1129–1139Google Scholar
  58. Marcati C, Oliveira J, Machado S (2006) Growth rings in cerrado woody species: occurrence and anatomical markers. Biota Neotropica 6Google Scholar
  59. Mariaux A, Bossanyi I (2016) Nature and periodicity of growth rings in African timber: can they be used to determine the age of trees? Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 327:51–76Google Scholar
  60. Martínez-Cabrera H, Jones C, Espino S, Schenk H (2009) Wood anatomy and wood density in shrubs: responses to varying aridity along transcontinental transects. Am J Bot 96(8):1388–1398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Milton K (1991) Leaf change and fruit production in six neotropical moraceae species. The Journal of Ecology 79:1–26Google Scholar
  62. Moreau I (2016) Evidencing land cover dynamics and tropical forest seasonality: the benefit of 13 years of daily global observation (SPOT-VEGETATION). PhD thesis, Université Catholique de Louvain, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  63. Morlet J (1983) Sampling theory and wave propagation. Issues in Acoustic signal/Image processing and recognition, 1: 233–261Google Scholar
  64. Morton D, Nagol J, Carabajal C, Rosette J, Palace M, Cook B, Vermote E, Harding D, North P (2014) Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season. Nature 506:221–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Moura Y, Galvão L, dos Santos J, Roberts D, Breunig F (2012) Use of MISR/Terra data to study intra- and inter-annual EVI variations in the dry season of tropical forest. Remote Sens Environ 127:260–270Google Scholar
  66. Moya R, Tomazello Filho M (2009) Wood density variation and tree ring demarcation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry. Cerne 15(1):92–100Google Scholar
  67. Nath C, Munoz F, Pélissier R, Burslem D, Muthusankar G (2016) Growth rings in tropical trees: role of functional traits, environment, and phylogeny. Trees 30:2153–2175Google Scholar
  68. O’Brien J, Oberbauer S, Clark D, Clark D (2008) Phenology and stem diameter increment seasonality in a costa rican wet tropical forest. Biotropica 40:151–159Google Scholar
  69. Paillard D, Labeyrie L, Yiou P (1996) Macintosh program performs time series analysis. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 77: 379Google Scholar
  70. Paluš M, Novotná D, Tichavský P (2005) Shifts of seasons at the European mid-latitudes: Natural fluctuations correlated with the North Atlantic oscillation. Geophys Res Lett. Google Scholar
  71. Pan Y, Birdsey R, Fang J, Houghton R, Kauppi P, Kurz W, Phillips O, Shvidenko A, Lewis S, Canadell J et al (2011) A Large and Persistent Carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333:988–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Peel M, Finlayson B, McMahon T (2007) Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Dis 4:439–473Google Scholar
  73. Peters RL, Groenendijk P, Vlam M, Zuidema PA (2015) Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings: a critical evaluation of methods. Global change biology 21(5):2040–2054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Philippon N, de Lapparent B, Gond V, Sèze G, Martiny N, Camberlin P, Cornu G, Morel B, Moron V, Bigot S et al (2016) Analysis of the diurnal cycles for a better understanding of the mean annual cycle of forests greenness in Central Africa. Agric For Meteorol 223:81–94Google Scholar
  75. Phillips O, van der Heijden G, Lewis S, López-González G, Aragão L, Lloyd J, Malhi Y, Monteagudo A, Almeida S, Dávila E et al (2010) Drought-mortality relationships for tropical forests. New Phytol 187:631–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Poorter L, McDonald I, Alarcón A, Fichtler E, Licona J, Peña-Claros M, Sterck F, Villegas Z, Sass-Klaassen U (2010) The importance of wood traits and hydraulic conductance for the performance and life history strategies of 42 rainforest tree species. New Phytol 185:481–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Pucha-Cofrep D, Peters T, Bräuning A (2015) Wet season precipitation during the past century reconstructed from tree-rings of a tropical dry forest in Southern Ecuador. Global Planet Change 133:65–78Google Scholar
  78. R Core Team (2016) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  79. Ricker N (1953) Wavelet contraction, wavelet expansion, and the control of seismic resolution. Geophysics 18(4):769–792Google Scholar
  80. Rigozo N, Nordeman D, Echer E, Vieira L, Echer M, Prestes A (2005) Tree-ring width wavelet and spectral analysis of solar variability and climatic effects on a Chilean cypress during the last two and a half millennia. Climate of the Past Discussions 1(1):121–135Google Scholar
  81. Rozendaal D, Zuidema P (2011) Dendroecology in the tropics: a review. Trees 25:3–16Google Scholar
  82. Schaefli B, Zehe E (2009) Hydrological model performance and parameter estimation in the wavelet-domain. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 13(10): 1921Google Scholar
  83. Scheffer M, Carpenter S, Foley J, Folke C, Walker B (2001) Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413:591–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sexton J, Noojipady P, Song X, Feng M, Song D, Kim D, Anand A, Huang C, Channan S, Pimm S et al (2016) Conservation policy and the measurement of forests. Nature Climate Change 6(2):192–196Google Scholar
  85. Singh K, Kushwaha C (2016) Deciduousness in tropical trees and its potential as indicator of climate change: a review. Ecological indicators 69:699–706Google Scholar
  86. Tarelkin Y, Delvaux C, De Ridder M, El Berkani T, De Cannière C, Beeckman H (2016) Growth-ring distinctness based on IAWA’s definition: variability and consequences for trait analysis. IAWA Journal 37:275–294Google Scholar
  87. Van den Bulcke J, Wernersson E, Dierick M, Van Loo D, Masschaele B, Brabant L, Boone M, Van Hoorebeke L, Haneca K, Brun A et al (2014) 3D tree-ring analysis using helical X-ray tomography. Dendrochronologia 32:39–46Google Scholar
  88. van der Werf G, Morton D, DeFries R, Olivier J, Kasibhatla P, Jackson R, Collatz G, Randerson J (2009) CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nat Geosci 2:737–738Google Scholar
  89. Vancutsem C, Pekel J, Kibambe L, Blaes X, de Waseige C, Defourny F (2006) République démocratique du Congo - occupation du sol. Carte Géographique. Presses Universitaire de Louvain. Bruxelles, BelgiqueGoogle Scholar
  90. Verheyden A (2004) Rhizophora mucronata wood as a proxy for changes in environmental conditions, a study on the wood anatomy, stable isotope chemistry and inorganic composition of a Kenyan mangrove species. PhD Thesis. Brussels, Belgium: Vrije Universiteit BrusselGoogle Scholar
  91. Verheyden A, De Ridder F, Schmitz N, Beeckman H, Koedam N (2005) High-resolution time series of vessel density in Kenyan mangrove trees reveal a link with climate. New Phytol 167(2):425–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Viennois G, Barbier N, Fabre I, Couteron P (2013) Multiresolution quantification of deciduousness in West-Central African forests. Biogeosciences 10:6957–6967Google Scholar
  93. Villar-Salvador P, Castro-Díez P, Pérez-Rontomé C, Montserrat-Martí G (1997) Stem xylem features in three Quercus (Fagaceae) species along a climatic gradient in NE Spain. Trees 12:90–96Google Scholar
  94. Vlam M, Baker P, Bunyavejchewin S, Zuidema P (2014) Temperature and rainfall strongly drive temporal growth variation in Asian tropical forest trees. Oecologia 174:1449–1461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Vlassenbroeck J, Dierick M, Masschaele B, Cnudde V, Van Hoorebeke L, Jacobs P (2007) Software tools for quantification of X-ray microtomography at the UGCT. Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research section a: accelerators, spectrometers. Detectors Associated Equipment 580:442–445Google Scholar
  96. Wheeler E, Baas P, Rodgers S (2007) Variations in dicot wood anatomy: a global analysis based on the insidewood database. IAWA Journal 28:229–258Google Scholar
  97. Wiemann M, Wheeler E, Manchester S, Portier K (1998) Dicotyledonous wood anatomical characters as predictors of climate. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 139:83–100Google Scholar
  98. Wimmer R (2002) Wood anatomical features in tree-rings as indicators of environmental change. Dendrochronologia 20:21–36Google Scholar
  99. Worbes M (1995) How to measure growth dynamics in tropical trees a review. IAWA J 16:337–351Google Scholar
  100. Worbes M (2010) Wood anatomy and tree-ring structure and their importance for tropical dendrochronology. In: Amazonian Floodplain Forests. Springer Netherlands, 329–346Google Scholar
  101. WRB (World reference base for soil resources) (2014) International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Reports, (106). FAO. RomeGoogle Scholar
  102. Zanne A, Westoby M, Falster D, Ackerly D, Loarie S, Arnold S, Coomes D (2010) Angiosperm wood structure: Global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relation to wood density and potential conductivity. Am J Bot 97:207–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Zieminska K, Butler D, Gleason S, Wright I, Westoby M (2013) Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation across 24 Australian angiosperms. AoB PLANTS 5:plt046–plt046PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Zuidema P, Baker P, Groenendijk P, Schippers P, van der Sleen P, Vlam M, Sterck F (2013) Tropical forests and global change: filling knowledge gaps. Trends Plant Sci 18:413–419PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yegor Tarelkin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Koen Hufkens
    • 4
  • Stephan Hahn
    • 5
  • Jan Van den Bulcke
    • 3
  • Jean-François Bastin
    • 1
    • 6
  • Bhely Angoboy Ilondea
    • 2
    • 7
  • Olivier Debeir
    • 5
  • Joris Van Acker
    • 3
  • Hans Beeckman
    • 2
  • Charles De Cannière
    • 1
  1. 1.Landscape Ecology and Plant Production Systems UnitUniversité Libre de BruxellesBruxellesBelgium
  2. 2.Wood Biology ServiceRoyal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA)TervurenBelgium
  3. 3.Laboratory of Wood Technology, Department of Forest and Water ManagementUniversiteit GentGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Richardson Lab, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary BiologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  5. 5.Laboratories of Image, Signal processing and AcousticsUniversité Libre de BruxellesBruxellesBelgium
  6. 6.Institute of Integrative Biology, Department of Environmental Systems ScienceETH ZürichZurichSwitzerland
  7. 7.Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche AgronomiqueKinshasaCongo

Personalised recommendations