Warming results in advanced spring phenology, delayed leaf fall, and developed abnormal shoots in Pinus densiflora seedlings
- 3 Downloads
Key message In an evergreen species with fixed-growth, warming advanced budburst but not leaf appearance and growth, and the further developed abnormal shoots by warming indicates extended growing season instead of leaf fall.
Abstract We investigated the effects of warming and precipitation manipulation on phenology (spring phenology, leaf fall, and abnormal shoot phenology) in Pinus densiflora, which is an evergreen species with fixed-growth. In an open-air nursery, 2-year-old P. densiflora seedlings were planted in April 2013 and treated with 6 treatments (n = 3) [2 temperature levels: + 3 °C (TW) and control (TC); 3 precipitation levels: + 30% (PI), − 30% (PD), and control (PC)]. We observed spring and abnormal shoot phenology in 2014 and 2015, and measured dry weight of fallen leaves in 2015. Phenology was not changed by precipitation manipulation. In spring phenology, budburst was advanced by 9.4–9.6 days under warming, but timing of leaf appearance and growth did not changed. Cumulative weight of fallen leaves was 25.8–28.6% lower in TW plots than in TC plots between July and December 2015. There were no significant differences in occurrence rates of abnormal shoots among plots. 65.7–96.8% of abnormal shoots remained at the budburst stage in TC plots, while abnormal shoots in TW plots further developed to the leaf appearance and growth stages. Abnormal shoot development stopped 10.5–28.8 days later in TW plots than the TC plots in 2014 and 2015. Effects of warming were evident only in budburst, because leaf appearance and growth were affected by fixed-growth characteristics as well as warming. Decreased leaf fall and further developed abnormal shoots could be interpreted as delayed leaf senescence and extended growing season, respectively, for an evergreen species with fixed-growth.
KeywordsAbnormal shoot Budburst Leaf fall Pinus densiflora Precipitation manipulation Warming
This research was supported by the Korea Forest Service (2017058A00-1719-AB01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2013R1A1A2012242).
Compliance of ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Choi Y (2014) Korean climate change assessment report 2014. Korea Meteorological Administration, Seoul (In Korean)Google Scholar
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013) Summary for policymakers. In: Stocker T (ed) Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working group I contribution to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 33–118Google Scholar
- Jang W, Keyes CR, Running SW, Lim JH, Park PS (2015) Climate–growth relationships of relict Picea jezoensis at Mt. Gyebang, South Korea. For Sci Tech 11:19–26Google Scholar
- Juknys R, Žeimavičius K, Sujetovienė G, Gustainytė J (2012) Response of tree seasonal development to climate warming. Pol J Environ Stud 21:107–113Google Scholar
- Khaine I, Woo SY (2015) An overview of interrelationship between climate change and forests. For Sci Tech 11:11–18Google Scholar
- Korea Forest Service (2012) Creation and management of forest resources act. Korea Forest Service, Daejeon (In Korean)Google Scholar
- Korea Meteorological Administration (2018) Climate information portal. http://www.climate.go.kr/personal_RCP/new/korea_step1.php. Accessed 2 April 2018
- Kramer PJ, Kozlowski TT (2012) Physiology of woody plants. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Kushida T (2005) Effect of high summer temperatures on lammas shoot elongation and flowering in Japanese red pine. Phyton 45:215–221Google Scholar
- Menzel A, Sparks TH, Estrella N, Koch E, Aasa A, Ahas R, Alm-Kübler K, Bissolli P, Braslavská O, Briede A, Chmielewski FM, Crepinsek Z, Curnel Y, Dahl Å, Defila C, Donnelly A, Filella Y, Jatczak K, Måge F, Mestre A, Nordli Ø, Peñuelas J, Pirinen P, Remišová R, Scheifinger H, Striz M, Susnik A, Van Vliet AJH, Wielgolaski FE, Zach S, Zust A (2006) European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Glob Change Biol 12:1969–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olszyk D, Wise C, Van Ess E, Apple M, Tingey D (1998) Phenology and growth of shoots, needles, and buds of douglas-fir seedlings with elevated CO2 and (or) temperature. Can J Bot 76:1991–2001Google Scholar
- Seo DJ (2012) A study on phenology and growth of Pinus densiflora forest in the Baekdudaegan area. Doctoral dissertation, GyeongSang National University. (In Korean with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Seo Y, Lee D, Choi J (2017) Growth pattern analysis of major coniferous tree species in South Korea. For Sci Tech 14:1–6Google Scholar
- Wolkovich EM, Cook BI, Allen JM, Crimmins TM, Betancourt JL, Travers SE, Pau S, Regetz J, Davies TJ, Kraft NJB, Ault TR, Bolmgren K, Mazer SJ, McCabe GJ, McGill BJ, Parmesan C, Salamin N, Schwartz MD, Cleland EE (2012) Warming experiments underpredict plant phenological responses to climate change. Nature 485:494–497CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar