, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 855–869 | Cite as

Site-specific climatic signals in stable isotope records from Swedish pine forests

  • Jan Esper
  • Steffen Holzkämper
  • Ulf Büntgen
  • Bernd Schöne
  • Frank Keppler
  • Claudia Hartl
  • Scott St. George
  • Dana F. C. Riechelmann
  • Kerstin Treydte
Original Article


Key message

Pinus sylvestris tree-ring δ13C and δ18O records from locally moist sites in central and northern Sweden contain consistently stronger climate signals than their dry site counterparts.


We produced twentieth century stable isotope data from Pinus sylvestris trees near lakeshores and inland sites in northern Sweden (near Kiruna) and central Sweden (near Stockholm) to evaluate the influence of changing microsite conditions on the climate sensitivity of tree-ring δ13C and δ18O. The data reveal a latitudinal trend towards lower C and O isotope values near the Arctic tree line (− 0.8‰ for δ13C and − 2.4‰ for δ18O relative to central Sweden) reflecting widely recognized atmospheric changes. At the microsite scale, δ13C decreases from the dry inland to the moist lakeshore sites (− 0.7‰ in Kiruna and − 1.2‰ in Stockholm), evidence of the importance of groundwater access to this proxy. While all isotope records from northern and central Sweden correlate significantly against temperature, precipitation, cloud cover and/or drought data, climate signals in the records from moist microsites are consistently stronger, which emphasizes the importance of site selection when producing stable isotope chronologies. Overall strongest correlations are found with summer temperature, except for δ18O from Stockholm correlating best with instrumental drought indices. These findings are complemented by significant positive correlations with temperature-sensitive ring width data in Kiruna, and inverse (or absent) correlations with precipitation-sensitive ring width data in Stockholm. A conclusive differentiation between leading and co-varying forcings is challenging based on only the calibration against often defective instrumental climate data, and would require an improved understanding of the physiological processes that control isotope fractionation at varying microsites and joined application of forward modelling.


δ13δ18Pinus sylvestris L. Microsite Dendrochronology Sweden 



We thank Florian Benninghoff, Willy Dindorf, Elisabeth Düthorn, Susanne Koch, Markus Kochbeck, Oliver Konter, Michael Maus, Maria Mischel and Jutta Sonnberg for field and laboratory support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Ahrens CD (2012) Meteorology today: an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Brooks/Cole, BelmontGoogle Scholar
  2. Auer I et al (2007) HISTALP—historical instrumental climatological surface time series of the greater Alpine region 1760–2003. Int J Climatol 27:17–46Google Scholar
  3. Barbaro S, Cannata G, Coppolino S, Leone C, Sinagra E (1981) Correlation between relative sunshine and state of the sky. Sol Energy 26:537–550Google Scholar
  4. Barbour MM (2007) Stable oxygen isotope composition of plant tissue: a review. Funct Plant Biol 34:83–94Google Scholar
  5. Barbour MM, Andrews TJ, Farquhar GD (2001) Correlations between oxygen isotope ratios of wood constituents of Quercus and Pinus samples from around the world. Funct Plant Biol 28:335–348Google Scholar
  6. Bégin C, Gingras M, Savard MM, Marion J, Nicault A, Bégin Y (2015) Assessing tree-ring carbon and oxygen stable isotopes for climate reconstruction in the Canadian northeastern boreal forest. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 423:91–101Google Scholar
  7. Biondi F, Waikul K (2004) Dendroclim2002: a C++ program for statistical calibration of climate signals in tree-ring chronologies. Computers Geosci 30:303–311Google Scholar
  8. Boettger T et al (2007) Wood cellulose preparation methods and mass spectrometric analyses of δ13C, δ18O and non-exchangeable δ2H values in cellulose, sugar, and starch: an inter-laboratory comparison. Anal Chem 79:4603–4612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Böhm R, Auer I, Brunetti M, Maugeri M, Nanni T, Schöner W (2001) Regional temperature variability in the European Alps 1760–1998 from homogenized instrumental time series. Int J Climatol 21:1779–1801Google Scholar
  10. Briffa KR, Jones PD, Schweingruber FH, Osborn TJ (1998a) Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern Hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years. Nature 393:450–455Google Scholar
  11. Briffa KR, Schweingruber FH, Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Shiyatov SG, Vaganov EA (1998b) Reduced sensitivity of recent tree-growth to temperature at high northern latitudes. Nature 391:678–682Google Scholar
  12. Büntgen U et al (2011) Causes and consequences of past and projected Scandinavian summer temperatures, 500–2100 AD. Plos One. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Cernusak LA, English NB (2015) Beyond tree-ring widths: stable isotopes sharpen the focus on climate responses of temperate forest trees. Tree Phys. Google Scholar
  14. Cook ER, Peters K (1981) The smoothing spline: a new approach to standardizing forest interior tree-ring width series for dendroclimatic studies. Tree-Ring Bull 41:45–54Google Scholar
  15. Cook ER et al (2015) Old world megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era. Sci Adv. Google Scholar
  16. Cullen LE, Grierson PF (2006) Is cellulose extraction necessary for developing stable carbon and oxygen isotopes chronologies from Callitris glaucophylla? Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 236:206–216Google Scholar
  17. Dansgaard W (1964) Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16:436–468Google Scholar
  18. Darling WG, Talbot JC (2003) The O & H stable isotopic composition of fresh waters in the British Isles. 1. Rainfall. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 7:163–181Google Scholar
  19. Düthorn E, Holzkämper S, Timonen M, Esper J (2013) Influence of micro-site conditions on tree-ring climate signals and trends in Central and Northern Sweden. Trees 27:1395–1404Google Scholar
  20. Düthorn E, Schneider L, Konter O, Schön P, Timonen M, Esper J (2015) On the hidden significance of differing micro-sites in dendroclimatology. Silva Fenn. Google Scholar
  21. Düthorn E, Schneider L, Günther B, Gläser S, Esper J (2016) Ecological and climatological signals in tree-ring width and density chronologies along a latitudinal boreal transect. Scand J For Res 31:750–757Google Scholar
  22. Edwards TWD, Fritz P (1986) Assessing meteoric water composition and relative humidity from 18O and 2H in wood cellulose: paleoclimatic implications for southern Ontario, Canada. Appl Geochem 1:715–723Google Scholar
  23. Ehleringer JR, Dawson TE (1992) Water-uptake by plants—perspectives from stable isotope composition. Plant Cell Environ 15:1073–1082Google Scholar
  24. Esper J, Frank DC, Wilson RJS, Briffa KR (2005) Effect of scaling and regression on reconstructed temperature amplitude for the past millennium. Geophys Res Lett. Google Scholar
  25. Esper J, Frank DC, Büntgen U, Verstege A, Luterbacher J, Xoplaki E (2007) Long-term drought severity variations in Morocco. Geophys Res Lett. Google Scholar
  26. Esper J, Frank DC, Battipaglia G, Büntgen U, Holert C, Treydte K, Siegwolf R, Saurer M (2010) Low-frequency noise in δ13C and δ18O tree ring data: a case study of Pinus uncinata in the Spanish Pyrenees. Glob Biogeochem Cycl. Google Scholar
  27. Esper J, Schneider L, Krusic PJ, Luterbacher J, Büntgen U, Timonen M, Sirocko F, Zorita E (2013) European summer temperature response to annually dated volcanic eruptions over the past nine centuries. Bull Volcanol. Google Scholar
  28. Esper J, Düthorn E, Krusic P, Timonen M, Büntgen U (2014) Northern European summer temperature variations over the Common Era from integrated tree-ring density records. J Quat Sci 29:487–494Google Scholar
  29. Esper J, Konter O, Krusic P, Saurer M, Holzkämper S, Büntgen U (2015a) Long-term summer temperature variations in the Pyrenees from detrended stable carbon isotopes. Geochronom 42:53–59Google Scholar
  30. Esper J, Schneider L, Smerdon J, Schöne B, Büntgen U (2015b) Signals and memory in tree-ring width and density data. Dendrochronologia 35:62–70Google Scholar
  31. Esper J et al (2016) Review of tree-ring based temperature reconstructions of the past millennium. Quat Sci Rev 145:134–151Google Scholar
  32. Farquhar G, Roderick M (2007) Worldwide changes in evaporative demand. Water Environ Scripta Varia 108:81–103Google Scholar
  33. Farquhar GD, O’Leary MH, Berry JA (1982) On the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration in leaves. Funct Plant Biol 9:121–137Google Scholar
  34. Farquhar GD, Ehleringer R, Hubic KT (1989) Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Bioi 40:503–537Google Scholar
  35. Flohn H (1950) Neue Anschauungen über die allgemeine Zirkulation der Atmosphäre und ihre klimatische Bedeutung. Erdkunde 141–162Google Scholar
  36. Frank D, Büntgen U, Böhm R, Maugeri M, Esper J (2007) Warmer early instrumental measurements versus colder reconstructed temperatures: shooting at a moving target. Quat Sci Rev 26:3298–3310Google Scholar
  37. Frank DC et al (2015) Water use efficiency and transpiration across European forests during the Anthropocene. Nature Clim Change 5:579–583Google Scholar
  38. Friedrichs DA, Büntgen U, Frank DC, Esper J, Neuwirth B, Löffler J (2008) Complex climate controls on 20th century oak growth in Central-West Germany. Tree Phys 29:39–51Google Scholar
  39. Fritts HC (1976) Tree rings and climate. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Fritts HC, Blasing TJ, Hayden BP, Kutzbach JE (1971) Multivariate techniques for specifying tree-growth and climate relationships and for reconstructing anomalies in paleoclimate. J Appl Meteorol 10:845–864Google Scholar
  41. Gagen M, McCarroll D, Edouard JL (2004) Latewood width, maximum density, and stable carbon isotope ratios of pine as climate indicators in a dry subalpine environment, French Alps. Arct Antarct Alp Res 36:166–171Google Scholar
  42. Gagen M, Zorita E, McCarroll D, Young GH, Grudd H, Jalkanen R, Loader NJ, Robertson I, Kirchhefer A (2011) Cloud response to summer temperatures in Fennoscandia over the last thousand years. Geophys Res Lett. Google Scholar
  43. Gessler A, Ferrio JP, Hommel R, Treydte K, Werner RA, Monson RK (2014) Stable isotopes in tree rings: towards a mechanistic understanding of isotope fractionation and mixing processes from the leaves to the wood. Tree Phys 34:796–818Google Scholar
  44. Gori YURI., Wehrens R, Greule M, Keppler F, Ziller L, La Porta N, Camin F (2013) Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of whole wood, cellulose and lignin methoxyl groups of Picea abies as climate proxies. Rap Comm Mass Spectr 27:265–275Google Scholar
  45. Hangartner S, Kress A, Saurer M, Frank D, Leuenberger M (2012) Methods to merge overlapping tree-ring isotope series to generate multi-centennial chronologies. Chem Geolog 294:127–134Google Scholar
  46. Harris I, Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Lister DH (2014) Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations—the CRU TS3.10 dataset. Int J Climatol 34:623–642Google Scholar
  47. Hartl-Meier C, Zang C, Büntgen U, Esper J, Rothe A, Göttlein A, Dirnböck T, Treydte K (2015) Uniform climate sensitivity in tree-ring stable isotopes across species and sites in a mid-latitude temperate forest. Tree Phys 35:4–15Google Scholar
  48. Heinrich I, Touchan R, Dorado Linan I, Vos H, Helle G (2013) Winter-to-spring temperature dynamics in Turkey derived from tree rings since AD 1125. Clim Dyn 41:1685–1701Google Scholar
  49. Helama S, Arppe L, Timonen M, Mielikäinen K, Oinonen M (2015) Age-related trends in subfossil tree-ring δ13C data. Chem Geol 416:28–35Google Scholar
  50. Hilasvuori E, Berninger F, Sonninen E, Tuomenvirta H, Jungner H (2009) Stability of climate signal in carbon and oxygen isotope records and ring width from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland. J Quat Sci 24:469–480Google Scholar
  51. Holmes RL (1983) Computer-assisted quality control in tree-ring dating and measurement. Tree-Ring Bull 43:69–78Google Scholar
  52. Konter O, Holzkämper S, Helle G, Büntgen U, Saurer M, Esper J (2014) Climate sensitivity and parameter coherency in annually resolved δ13C and δ18O from Pinus uncinata tree-ring data in the Spanish Pyrenees. Chem Geol 377:12–19Google Scholar
  53. Kortelainen NM, Karhu JA (2004) Regional and seasonal trends in the oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of Finnish ground waters: a key for mean annual precipitation. J Hydrol 285:143–157Google Scholar
  54. Kress A, Saurer M, Büntgen U, Treydte KS, Bugmann H, Siegwolf TW (2009) Summer temperature dependency of larch budmoth outbreaks revealed by Alpine tree-ring isotope chronologies. Oecologia 160:353–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kress A, Saurer M, Siegwolf RTW, Frank DC, Esper J, Bugmann H (2010) A 350 year drought reconstruction from Alpine tree-ring stable isotopes. Glob Biogeo Cyc. Google Scholar
  56. Labuhn I, Daux V, Girardclos O, Stievenard M, Pierre M, Masson-Delmotte V (2016) French summer droughts since 1326 CE: a reconstruction based on tree ring cellulose δ18O. Clim Past 12:1101–1117Google Scholar
  57. Leavitt SW (2010) Tree-ring C–H–O isotope variability and sampling. Sci Tot Environ 8:5244–5253Google Scholar
  58. Leavitt SW, Long A (1989) Drought indicated in carbon-13/carbon-12 ratios of southwestern tree rings. Water Resour Bull 25:341–347Google Scholar
  59. Linderholm HW, Björklund J, Seftigen K, Gunnarson BE, Fuentes M (2015) Fennoscandia revisited: a spatially improved tree-ring reconstruction of summer temperatures for the last 900 years. Clim Dyn 45:933–947Google Scholar
  60. Liu Y, Cai Q, Liu W, Yang Y, Sun J, Song H, Li X (2008) Monsoon precipitation variation recorded by tree-ring δ18O in arid Northwest China since AD 1878. Chem Geol 252:56–61Google Scholar
  61. Loader NJ, Robertson I, McCarroll D (2003) Comparison of stable carbon isotope ratios in the whole wood, cellulose and lignin of oak tree-rings. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 196:395–407Google Scholar
  62. Loader NJ, Young GHF, Grudd H, McCarroll D (2013) Stable carbon isotopes from Torneträsk, northern Sweden provide a millennial length reconstruction of summer sunshine and its relationship to Arctic circulation. Quat Sci Rev 62:97–113Google Scholar
  63. Luterbacher J, Xoplaki E, Dietrich D, Rickli R, Jacobeit J, Beck C, Gyalistras D, Schmutz C, Wanner H (2002) Reconstruction of sea level pressure fields over the Eastern North Atlantic and Europe back to 1500. Clim Dyn 18:545–561Google Scholar
  64. Luterbacher J et al (2016) European summer temperatures since Roman times. Environ Res Lett. Google Scholar
  65. Matalas NC (1962) Statistical properties of tree ring data. Hydrol Sci J 7:39–47Google Scholar
  66. Meko DM (1981) Applications of Box-Jenkins methods of time series analysis to the reconstruction of drought from tree rings. PhD Dissertation, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  67. Mischel M, Esper J, Keppler F, Greule M, Werner W (2015) δ2H, δ13C and δ18O from whole wood, a-cellulose and lignin methoxyl groups in Pinus sylvestris: a multi-parameter approach. Isotop Environ Health Stud 51:553–568Google Scholar
  68. New M, Hulme M, Jones P (1999) Representing twentieth-century space–time climate variability. Part I: development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. J Clim 12:829–856Google Scholar
  69. New M, Lister D, Hulme M, Makin I (2002) A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas. Clim Res 21:1–25Google Scholar
  70. Ododo JC, Agbakwuru JA, Ogbu FA (1996) Correlation of solar radiation with cloud cover and relative sunshine duration. Energy Convers Manag 37:1555–1559Google Scholar
  71. Porter TJ, Pisaric MF, Field RD, Kokelj SV, Edwards TW, Healy R, LeGrande AN (2014) Spring–summer temperatures since AD 1780 reconstructed from stable oxygen isotope ratios in white spruce tree-rings from the Mackenzie Delta, northwestern Canada. Clim Dyn 42:771–785Google Scholar
  72. Reddy SJ (1974) An empirical method for estimating sunshine from total cloud amount. Sol Energy 15:281–285Google Scholar
  73. Riechelmann DFC, Maus M, Dindorf W, Schöne B, Scholz D, Esper J (2014) Sensitivity of whole wood stable carbon and oxygen istotope values to milling procedures. Rap Comm Mass Spectr 28:1371–1375Google Scholar
  74. Riechelmann DFC, Maus M, Dindorf W, Konter O, Schöne B, Esper J (2016) Comparison of δ13C and δ18O from cellulose, whole wood, from an old high elevation Pinus uncinata in the Spanish Central Pyrenees. Isotop Environ Health Stud. Google Scholar
  75. Rinn F (2005) TSAP Win—time series analysis and presentation for dendrochronology and related applications. User reference, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  76. Rinne KT, Loader NJ, Switsur VR, Waterhouse JS (2013) 400-year May–August precipitation reconstruction for Southern England using oxygen isotopes in tree rings. Quat Sci Rev 60:13–25Google Scholar
  77. Roden JS, Ehleringer JR (1999) Observations of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in leaf water confirm the Craig-Gordon model under wide-ranging environmental conditions. Plant Physiol 120:1165–1173PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Rozanski K, Araguas-Araguas L, Gonfiantini R (1992) Relation between long-term trends of oxygen-18 isotope composition of precipitation and climate. Science 258:981–985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Saurer M, Siegenthaler U, Schweingruber F (1995) The climate-carbon isotope relationship in tree-rings and the significance of site conditions. Tellus B 47:320–330Google Scholar
  80. Saurer M, Siegwolf R, Schweingruber F (2004) Carbon isotope discrimination indicates improving water-use efficiency of trees in northern Eurasia over the last 100 years. Glob Change Biol 10:2109–2120Google Scholar
  81. Saurer M, Cherubini P, Reynolds-Henne CE, Treydte KS, Anderson WT, Siegwolf RTW (2008) An investigation of the common signal in tree ring stable isotope chronologies at temperate sites. J Geophys Res. Google Scholar
  82. Schleser GH, Anhuf D, Helle G, Vos H (2015) A remarkable relationship of the stable carbon isotopic compositions of wood and cellulose in tree-rings of the tropical species Cariniana micrantha (Ducke) from Brazil. Chem Geol 401:59–66Google Scholar
  83. Schneider L, Smerdon J, Büntgen U, Wilson R, Myglan VS, Kirdyanov A, Esper J (2015) Revising midlatitude summer temperatures back to AD 600 based on a wood density network. Geophys Res Lett. Google Scholar
  84. Seftigen K, Linderholm HW, Loader NJ, Liu Y, Young GH (2011) The influence of climate on 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in tree ring cellulose of Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the central Scandinavian Mountains. Chem Geol 286:84–93Google Scholar
  85. Sidorova OV, Siegwolf RT, Saurer M, Naurzbaev MM, Vaganov EA (2008) Isotopic composition (δ13C, δ18O) in wood and cellulose of Siberian larch trees for early Medieval and recent periods. J Geophys Res Biogeosci. Google Scholar
  86. Stuiver M, Braziunas TF (1987) Tree cellulose 13C/12C isotope ratios and climatic change. Nature 328:58–60Google Scholar
  87. Tejedor E, Saz MA, Cuadrat JM, Esper J, de Luis M (2017) Summer drought reconstruction in Northeastern Spain inferred from a tree-ring latewood network since 1734. Geophys Res Lett. Google Scholar
  88. Treydte K, Schleser GH, Schweingruber FH, Winiger M (2001) The climatic significance of δ13C in subalpine spruces (Lötschental/Swiss Alps)—a case study with respect to altitude, exposure and soil moisture. Tellus B 53:593–611Google Scholar
  89. Treydte K, Schleser GH, Helle G, Frank DC, Winiger M, Haug GH, Esper J (2006) The twentieth century was the wettest period in Northern Pakistan over the past millennium. Nature 440:1179–1182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Treydte K et al (2007) Signal strength and climate calibration of a European tree ring isotope network. Geophys Res Lett. Google Scholar
  91. Treydte K, Frank DC, Saurer M, Helle G, Schleser G, Esper J (2009) Impact of climate and CO2 on a millennium-long tree-ring carbon isotope record. Geochim Cosmochim Act 73:4635–4647Google Scholar
  92. Treydte K, Boda S, Graf Pannatier E, Fonti P, Frank D, Ullrich B, Saurer M, Siegwolf R, Battipaglia G, Werner W, Gessler A (2014) Seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil to the tree ring: source water versus needle water enrichment. New Phytol 202:772–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Trouet V, van Oldenborgh GJ (2013) KNMI climate explorer: a web-based research tool for high-resolution paleoclimatology. Tree Ring Res 69:1–13Google Scholar
  94. Trouet V, Esper J, Graham NE, Baker A, Scourse JD, Frank DC (2009) Persistent positive North Atlantic oscillation mode dominated the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science 324:78–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Trouet V, Harley GL, Domínguez-Delmás M (2016) Shipwreck rates reveal Caribbean tropical cyclone response to past radiative forcing. Proc Nat Acad Sci 13:3169–3174Google Scholar
  96. van Oldenborgh GJ, Burgers G (2005) Searching for decadal variations in ENSO precipitation teleconnections. Geophys Res Lett. Google Scholar
  97. van der Schrier G, Briffa KR, Jones PD, Osborn TJ (2006) Summer moisture variability across Europe. J Clim 19:2818–2834Google Scholar
  98. Verheyden A, Roggeman M, Bouillon S, Elskens M, Beeckman H, Koedam N (2005) Comparison between δ13C of α-cellulose and bulk wood in the mangrove tree Rhizophora mucronata: implications for dendrochemistry. Chem Geol 219:275–282Google Scholar
  99. von Storch H, Zorita E, Jones J, Dimitriev Y, Gonzalez-Rouco JF, Tett SFB (2004) Reconstructing past climate from noise data. Science 306:679–682Google Scholar
  100. Wanner H, Brönnimann S, Casty C, Gyalistras D, Luterbacher J, Schmutz C, Stephenson DB, Xoplaki E (2001) North Atlantic oscillation—concepts and studies. Surveys Geophys 22:321–381Google Scholar
  101. Waterhouse JS, Barker AC, Carter AHC, Agafonov LI, Loader NJ (2000) Stable carbon isotopes in Scots pine tree rings preserve a record of flow of the river Ob. Geophys Res Lett 27:3529–3532Google Scholar
  102. Weigt RB et al (2015) Comparison of δ13C and δ18O values between tree-ring whole wood and cellulose in five species growing under two different site conditions. Rapid Commun Mass Spectr 29:2233–2244Google Scholar
  103. Wilson AT, Grinsted MJ (1977) 12C/13C in cellulose and lignin as palaeothermometers. Nature 265:133Google Scholar
  104. Wilson RJS et al (2016) Last millennium Northern Hemisphere summer temperatures from tree rings. Part I: the long term context. Quat Sci Rev 134:1–18Google Scholar
  105. Zeng X, Liu X, Treydte K, Evans MN, Wang W, An W, Sun W, Xu G, Wu G, Zhang X (2017) Climate signals in tree-ring δ18O and δ13C from southeastern Tibet: insights from observations and forward modelling of intra- to interdecadal variability. New Phytol. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  2. 2.Department of Physical GeographyStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of GeographyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  4. 4.Swiss Federal Research Institute WSLBirmensdorfSwitzerland
  5. 5.CzechGlobe Research Institute CAS and Masaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  6. 6.Institute of GeosciencesJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  7. 7.Institute of Earth SciencesRuprecht-Karls UniversityHeidelbergGermany
  8. 8.Department of Geography, Environment and SocietyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations