Growth models based on tree-ring data for the Neotropical tree species Calophyllum brasiliense across different Brazilian wetlands: implications for conservation and management
- 314 Downloads
Site-specific growth modeling based on tree-ring data is demonstrated to be an efficient tool for conservation and sustainable forest management of an economically important tropical tree species, Calophyllum brasiliense.
One of the main challenges in the sustained management of natural tropical forests is obtaining reliable data on tree growth, which is prerequisite information for determining harvesting volumes and felling cycles. In this study, we apply growth models based on tree-ring data and allometric equations to estimate site-specific management options for timber resources of the commercial species Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) comparing 16 wetland sites across different Brazilian ecoregions, the Amazon, Cerrado (savannah), Pantanal and Mata Atlântica (Coastal Atlantic Rainforest). By modeling diameter, height, and volume growth parameters, we estimate site-specific minimum logging diameters (MLD) and felling cycles analyzing a total of 341 trees. Between ecoregions, the mean diameter increments varied slightly between 4.3 ± 1.6 mm year−1 in the Amazon region (average of six sites), 4.0 ± 0.8 mm year−1 in the Cerrado and Pantanal (average of seven sites), and 4.5 ± 1.2 mm year−1 in the Mata Atlântica (average of three sites). However, between sites, we observed significant differences in diameter and volume increment rates, resulting in felling cycles varying from 14 to 63 years and MLDs in the range of 35–81 cm. This clearly indicates that forest management practices in Brazil, which generally applies a feeling cycle of 25 years and a diameter-cutting limit of 50 cm cannot guarantee a sustainable timber harvest. Timber resource management of this species requires site-specific criteria and should be restricted at sites with a low wood productivity. Moreover, long-term monitoring of the population structure and dynamics is necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between environmental factors and population dynamics, especially concerning the regeneration processes.
KeywordsTree rings Tropical forest management Inundation forests Felling cycles Minimum logging diameter
This study was financed by the National Amazon Research Institute (INPA)/Max-Planck Project; the working group Ecology, monitoring, and sustainable use of wetlands (MAUA) at the National Amazon Research Institute (INPA), Manaus; the Program of Support for Excellence Centers (PRONEX); the Amazonas State Research Support Foundation (FAPEAM); the Brazilian Research Council (CNPq–Universal No. 479684/2011-1); as well as by the National Institute of Science and Technology for Wetlands (INAU) and the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba-MT. It was also supported by the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Lavras-MG, and the National Office of Forests (ONF)—Brazil, Cotriguaçu-MT. We acknowledge the suggestions of two anonymous reviewers.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was supported by the CNPq—National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development, Projeto Universal number 479684/2011-1 and the FAPEAM—Research Support Foundation of Amazon State, Programa de Apoio a Núcleos de Excelência (PRONEX-FAPEAM), Number 016/2006.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Da Fonseca Júnior SF, Piedade MTF, Schöngart J (2009) Wood growth of Tabebuia barbata (E. Mey.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) and Vatairea guianensis Aubl. (Fabaceae) in Central Amazonian black-water (igapó) and white-water (várzea) floodplain forests. Trees 23:127–134. doi: 10.1007/s00468-008-0261-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Durigan G, da Silveira ÉR (1999) Recomposição da mata ciliar em domínio de cerrado, Assis, SP. Sci For 56:135–144Google Scholar
- Falkenberg de DB (1999) Aspects of the flora and secondary vegetation in the Restinga from Santa Catarina State, South Brazil. Insula 28:1–30Google Scholar
- Furch K (1997) Chemistry of várzea and igapó soils and nutrient inventory of their floodplain forests. In: Junk WJ (ed) The Central Amazon floodplain: ecology of a pulsing system, vol 126. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 47–67. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-03416-3_3
- Higuchi N, Hummel AC, Freias JV et al (1994) Exploração florestal nas várzeas do estado do Amazonas: seleção de árvore, derrubada e transporte. Proceedings of the VII Harvesting and Transportation of Timber Products. IUFRO/UFPR, Curitiba, Brasil, pp 168–193Google Scholar
- Junk WJ, Piedade MTF (2010) An introduction to South American wetland forests: distribution, definitions and general characterization. In: Junk WJ, Piedade MTF, Wittmann F et al (eds) Amazonian floodplain forests: ecophysiology, biodiversity and sustainable management, vol 210. Springer, Netherlands, pp 3–25. doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8725-6_1
- Junk WJ, Bayley PB, Sparks RE (1989) The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. In: Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, pp 110–127Google Scholar
- Lacerda de LD, de Araújo DSD, Maciel NC (1982) Restingas Brasileiras: uma bibliografia. Fundação José Bonifácio, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
- Leoni JM, Fonseca Júnior da SF, Schöngart J (2011) Growth and population structure of the tree species Malouetia tamaquarina (Aubl.) (Apocynaceae) in the central Amazonian floodplain forests and their implication for management. For Ecol Manag 261:62–67. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.09.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- López L, Villalba R (2016) Reliable estimate of radial growth for eight tropical tree species based on wood anatomical patterns. J Trop For Sci 28(2):139–152Google Scholar
- Lorenzi H (1992) Árvores brasileiras—manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas nativas do Brasil. Plantarum, Nova OdessaGoogle Scholar
- Nunes da Cunha C, Junk WJWJ, Leitão Filho HDF, Leitão-Filho HF (2007) Woody vegetation in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A preliminary typology. Amazoniana XIX:159–184Google Scholar
- Pott VJ, Pott A (2000) Plantas aquáticas do Pantanal. Embrapa, BrasíliaGoogle Scholar
- Rosa SA (2008) Modelos de crescimento de quatro espécies madeireiras de floresta de várzea da Amazônia Central por meio de métodos dendrocronológicos. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia/Universidade Federal do AmazonasGoogle Scholar
- Schöngart J (2010) Growth-Oriented Logging (GOL): The use of species-specific growth information for forest management in Central Amazonian floodplains. In: Junk WJ, Piedade MTF, Wittmann F et al (eds) Amazonian floodplain forests: ecophysiology, biodiversity and sustainable management, vol 210. Springer, Netherlands, pp 437–462. doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8725-6_21
- Schöngart J, Queiroz de HL (2010) Floodplains, Traditional timber harvesting in the Central Amazonian. In: Junk WJ, Piedade MTF, Wittmann F et al (eds) Amazonian floodplain forests: ecophysiology, biodiversity and sustainable management, vol 210. Springer, Netherlands, pp 419–436. doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8725-6_20
- Shupe TE, Aguilar EX, Vlosky RP, Chavez A (2005) Wood properties of selected lesser-used Honduran wood species. J Trop For Sci 17:438–446Google Scholar
- Wittmann F, Schöngart J, De Brito JM et al (2010) Manual of trees from Central Amazonian várzea floodplains: taxonomy, ecology and use. Editora INPA, ManausGoogle Scholar
- Worbes M (1997) The Forest Ecosystem of the Floodplains. In: Junk WJ (ed) The Central Amazon floodplain: ecology of a pulsing system, vol 126. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 223–260. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-03416-3
- Worbes M, Piedade MTF, Schöngart J (2001) Holzwirtschaft im Mamirauá-Projekt zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung einer Region im Überschwemmungsbereich des Amazonas. Forstarchiv 72:188–200Google Scholar