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Plant regeneration of Picea asperata Mast. by somatic embryogenesis

Abstract

Key message

This study provides a novel desiccation indicator for somatic embryos and an efficient system for somatic seedling production in Picea asperata Mast.

Abstract

Picea asperata Mast. is a widely distributed native spruce in China with outstanding wood properties and adaptability. In this study, we established an effective system to propagate plantlets through somatic embryogenesis in P. asperata. The effects of cone collection date, seed family, and plant growth regulators on the initiation of embryonal masses (EM) were analyzed. Besides the significant effects of seed family and cone collection date on EM initiation, the highest induction frequency was obtained with modified Litvay medium (MLV) containing 10 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 5 µM 6-benzylaminopurine. The best tissue proliferation in suspension cultures was obtained with an inoculum density of 1:7 (v/v, sedimented cells:liquid medium) after 9 days in culture. The best medium for somatic embryo (SE) maturation was MLV supplemented with 105 µM (±)-abscisic acid, 5% polyethylene glycol 4000, 3% sucrose, 0.1% activated charcoal (AC), 0.05% l-glutamine, 0.1% casein acid hydrolysate, and 0.4% gellan gum. In this medium, 415 ± 103 SEs with well-developed cotyledons were obtained per gram (fresh weight) of EM. After partial desiccation treatment under low light intensity, somatic embryos, depending on their color change, were divided into green cotyledonary embryos (GCEs) and non-green cotyledonary embryos (NGCEs). These embryos, along with non-desiccated SEs as controls, were germinated on 1/2 MLV supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.2% AC, 0.05% l-glutamine, and 0.6% gellan gum. Only GCEs, with red radicles, produced plantlets at the highest rates (>74.5%) among all of the treatments. This efficient system of somatic seedling production in P. asperata includes screened culture factors and a novel desiccation indicator to ensure SE quality before germination.

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Abbreviations

2,4-D:

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

BAP:

6-Benzylaminopurine

ABA:

Abscisic acid

AC:

Activated charcoal

PEG 4000:

Polyethylene glycol 4000

SE:

Somatic embryo

EM:

Embryonal masses

ECL:

Embryogenic cell line

GCE:

Green cotyledonary embryo

NGCE:

Non-green cotyledonary embryo

FW:

Fresh weight

MLV:

Modified Litvay medium

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by a grant from the China Twelfth Five-Year Plan for Science Technology Support (2012BAD01B01). The authors acknowledge Xiao Long Shan Forestry Research Institute for cone collection and thank Prof. Iain Charles Bruce (Peking University, China) for critical reading of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Junhui Wang.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Communicated by K. Klimaszewska.

Y. Xia and J. Zhang contributed equally to this work.

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Xia, Y., Zhang, J., Jing, D. et al. Plant regeneration of Picea asperata Mast. by somatic embryogenesis. Trees 31, 299–312 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-016-1484-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-016-1484-4

Keywords

  • Spruce
  • Embryonal masses
  • Somatic embryo maturation
  • Somatic embryo germination
  • Partial desiccation
  • Indicator