, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 765–779 | Cite as

Sap flow-based transpiration in Phyllostachys pubescens: applicability of the TDP methodology, age effect and rhizome role

  • Zhao Xiu-hua
  • Zhao PingEmail author
  • Zhang Zhen-zhen
  • Zhu Li-wei
  • Niu Jun-feng
  • Ni Guang-yan
  • Hu Yan-ting
  • Ouyang Lei
Original Article


Key messages

We quantified the water use of Phyllostachys pubescens using 10 mm TDP. Water use of P. pubescens was affected by culm age rather than its size. Rhizome system has a strong transfer function.


To accurately quantify the water use of bamboo forest stands, the applicability of a modified TDP (10 mm long) for measuring the sap flow of bamboo culms was verified. We also investigated the effects of culm age and rhizomes on water use. To this end, we designed two experimental systems, an induced hydraulic pressure and sap flow changing device and a whole-culm pot weighing method to validate the sap flow equation in Phyllostachys pubescens. The results showed that the modified 10 mm long TDP was a valid means of measuring the sap flow of P. pubescens. The verified probes and the corrected Granier’s empirical equation were applied to monitoring and calculating the sap flow density of P. pubescens. The results showed that stand transpiration changed significantly across the wet and dry seasons. Culm transpiration decreased with culm age whether in winter or in summer. Juvenile bamboo had the highest daily transpiration, and more than 20 % of compensative water was imported from other culms by rhizomes in summer. The water potential of the rhizome-cut culms was lower than that of normal culms. It is concluded that the rhizome system has a strong transfer function and that the water consumed by juvenile culms includes water self-absorbed directly from soil and water transferred from other culms via rhizomes.


Phyllostachys pubescens Sap flow Culm age Water potential Water compensation Rhizome 



The authors express their gratitude to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31170673, 41030638, and 41275169) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (S2012020010933). We thank the co-workers of Nankun Mountain Natural Reserve for working support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that all authors have no conflict of interest.


  1. Banik RL (1995) Diversities, reproductive biology and strategies for germplasm conservation of bamboos. In: Rao VR, Rao AN (eds) Bamboo and Rattan genetic resources and use. Proceedings of the First INBAR biodiversity, genetic resources and conservation working group. INBAR-IPGRI, Rome, p 1–22Google Scholar
  2. Barbara BJ (2000) Age related changes in photosynthesis of woody plants. Trends Plant Sci 5:349–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bush SE, Hultine KR, Sperry JS, Ehleringer JR, Philips N (2010) Calibration of thermal dissipation sap flow probes for ring and diffuse porous trees. Tree Physiol 30:1545–1554CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bystriakova N, Kapos V, Lysenko I, Stapleton CMA (2003) Distribution and conservation status of forest bamboo biodiversity in the Asia-Pacific Region. Biodivers Conserv 12:1833–1841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao KF, Yang SJ, Zhang YJ, Brodribb TJ (2012) The maximum height of grasses is determined by roots. Ecol Lett 15:666–672CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen XG, Zhang XQ, Zhang YP, Booth T, He XH (2009) Changes of carbon stocks in bamboo stands in China during 100 years. For Ecol Manag 258:1489–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christanty L, Kimmins JP, Mailly D (1997) ‘Without bamboo, the land dies’: a conceptual model of the biogeochemical role of bamboo in an Indonesian agroforestry system. For Ecol Manage 91:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clearwater MJ, Meinzer FC, Andrade JL, Goldstein G, Holbrook M (1998) Potential errors in measurement of nonuniform sap flow using heat dissipation probes. Tree Physiol 19:681–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cochard H (2002) Xylem embolism and drought-induced stomatal closure in maize. Planta 215:466–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Davies WJ, Zhang J (1991) Root signals and the regulation of growth and development of plants in drying soil. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42:55–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dawson TE (1996) Determining water use by trees and forests from isotopic, energy balance and transpiration analysis: the roles of tree size and hydraulic lift. Tree Physiol 16:263–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dawson TE, Ehleringer JR (1993) Gender-specific physiology, carbon isotope discrimination and habitat distribution in boxelder, Acer negundo. Ecology 74:798–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeSoyza AG, Franco AC, Virginia RA, Reynolds JF, Whitford WG (1996) Effects of plant size on photosynthesis and water relations in the desert shrub Prosopis glandulosa (Fabaceae). Am J Bot 83:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dierick D, Hölscher D (2009) Species-specific tree water use characteristics in reforestation stands in the Philippines. Agric For Meteorol 149:1317–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dierick D, Hölscher D, Schwendenmann L (2010) Water use characteristics of a bamboo species (Bambusa blumeana) in the Philippines. Agric For Meteorol 150:1568–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Donovan LA, Ehleringer JR (1991) Ecophysiological differences among juvenile and reproductive plants of several woody species. Oecologia 86:594–597CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Franklin DC (2005) Vegetative phenology and growth of a facultatively deciduous bamboo in a monsoonal climate. Biotropica 37:343–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fu MY, Banik RL (1995) Bamboo production systems and their management. In: Bamboo, People and the Environment. Proceedings of the Vth International Bamboo Workshop and the IVth International Bamboo Congress, Ubud, Bali, Indonesia, Volume 1. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, New Delhi, India, p 18–33Google Scholar
  19. Granier A, Huc R, Barigah ST (1996) Transpiration of natural rain forest and its dependence on climatic factors. Agric For Meteorol 78:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hincley TM, Braatne JH (1994) Stomata. Plant environment interactions. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 323–355Google Scholar
  21. Huang QM (1986) The research about biomass and photosynthesis of bamboo Ph. pubescens. In: Bamboo Production and Utilization. Proceedings of the Project Group P 5.04, Production and Utilization of Bamboo and related Species, XVIII IUFRO World Congress, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia. Wood Research Institute, Kyoto, Japan, p 77–81Google Scholar
  22. Hultine KR, Nagler PL, Morino K, Bush SE, Burtch KG, Dennison PE, Glenn EP, Ehleringer JR (2010) Sap flux-scaled transpiration by tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) before, during and after episodic defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata). Agric For Meteorol 150:1467–1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ichihashi R, Komatsu H, Kume T, Onozawa Y, Shinohara Y, Tsuruta K, Otsuki K (2014) Stand-scale transpiration of two Moso bamboo stands with different culm densities. Ecohydrology 8:450–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Isagi Y (1995) Ecological study of bamboo communities: a resource-based approach. Bull Fac Int Arts Sci Hiroshima Univ 21:235–238 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  25. Johnson DM, Meinzer FC, Woodruff DR, McCulloh KA (2009) Leaf xylem embolism, detected acoustically and by cryo-SEM, corresponds to decreases in leaf hydraulic conductance in four evergreen species. Plant Cell Environ 32:828–836CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jónsdóttir IS, Watson MA (1997) Extensive physiological integration: an adaptive trait in resource-poor environments. In: The Ecology and Evolution of Clonal Plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 109–136Google Scholar
  27. Kleinhenz V, Midmore DJ (2000) Estimating water usage of bamboo. Access Asian vegetables 28:1–2Google Scholar
  28. Kleinhenz V, Midmore DJ (2001) Aspects of bamboo agronomy. Adv Agric 74:99–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kleinhenz V, Milne J, Walsh KB, Midmore DJ (2003) A case study on the effects of irrigation and fertilization on soil water and soil nutrient status, and on growth and yield of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) shoots. J Bamboo Rattan 2:281–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Komatsu H, Onozawa Y, Kume T, Tsuruta K, Kumagai T, Shinohara Y, Otsuki K (2010) Stand-scale transpiration estimates in a Moso bamboo forest: II. Comparison with coniferous forests. Agric For Meteorol 260:1295–1302Google Scholar
  31. Komatsu H, Onozawa Y, Kume T, Tsuruta K, Shinohara Y, Otsuki K (2012) Canopy conductance for a Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest in western Japan. Agric For Meteorol 156:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Köstner B, Biron P, Siegwolf R, Granier A (1996) Estimates of water vapor flux and canopy conductance of Scots pine at the tree level utilizing different xylem sap flow methods. Theor Appl Climmtol 53:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kume T, Onozawa Y, Komatsu H, Tsuruta K, Shinohara Y, Umebayashi T, Otsuki K (2010) Stand-scale transpiration estimates in a moso bamboo forest: (I) Applicability of sap flux measurements. For Ecol Manag 260:1287–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li R, Werger MJA, During HJ, Zhong ZC (1998) Carbon and nutrient dynamics in relation to growth rhythm in the giant bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens. Plant Soil 201:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Li R, Werger MJA, During HJ, Zhong ZC (1999) Biomass distribution in a grove of the giant bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens in Chongqing, China. Flora 194:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liese W (1991) Progress in bamboo research. J Am Bamboo Soc 8:151–167Google Scholar
  37. Liese W (1995) Anatomy and utilization of bamboos. J Eur Bamboo Soc 6:5–12Google Scholar
  38. Liese W, Weiner G (1996) Ageing of bamboo culms. A review. Wood Sci Technol 30:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lin YM, Peng ZQ, Lin P (2004) Dynamics of leaf mass, leaf area and element retranslocation efficiency during leaf senescence in Phyllostachys pubescens. Act Bot Sin 46:1316–1323Google Scholar
  40. Lu P, Biron P, Bréda N, Graier A (1995) Water relations of adult Norway spruce (Picea-abies (L) Karst) under soil drought in the Vosges mountains: water potential, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Ann For Sci 52:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lu P, Woo KC, Liu ZT (2002) Estimation of whole-plant transpiration of bananas using sap flow measurements. J Exp Bot 53:1771–1779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Madurapperuma WS, Bleby TM, Burgess SSO (2009) Evaluation of sap flow methods to determine water use by cultivated palms. Environ Exp Bot 66:372–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marine Z (2009) Sap flow dynamics of a tropical, woody bamboo: Deductions of physiology and hydraulics within Guadua angustifolia. Dissertation, Washington University in St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  44. Marshall C (1990) Source-sink relations of interconnected ramets. In: J van Groenendael J and H de Kroon (eds) Clonal Growth in Plants: Regulation and Function. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, p 23–41Google Scholar
  45. Mattson-Djos E (1981) The use of pressure bomb and porometer for describing plant water stress in tree seedlings. Proceeding of a Nordic Symposium on vitality and Quality of Nursery Stock. Department of Silviculture, University of Helsinki, Finland, pp 45–57Google Scholar
  46. McCulloh KA, Winter K, Meinzer FC, Garcia M, Aranda J, Lachenbruch B (2007) A comparison of daily water use estimates derived from constant-heat sap-flow probe values and gravimetric measurements in pot-grown saplings. Tree Physiol 27:1355–1360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. McJannet D, Fitch P, Disher M, Wallace J (2007) Measurements of transpiration in four tropical rainforest types of north Queensland, Aust. Hydrol Process 21:3549–3564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nandy S, Das AK, Das G (2004) Phenology and culm growth of Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurtz in Barak Valley, North-East India. J Bamboo Rattan 3:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nicolás E, Torrecillas A, Amico JD, Alarcón JJ (2005) Sap flow, gas exchange, and hydraulic conductance of young apricot trees growing under a shading net and different water supplies. J Plant Physol 162:439–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Niu FR, RÖll A, Hardanto A, Meijide A, KÖhler M, Hendrayanto, HÖlscher D (2015) Oil palm water use: calibration of a sap flux method and a field measurement scheme. Tree Physiol 35:563–573CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ohrnberger D (1999) The bamboos of the world: annotated nomenclature and literature of the species and the higher and lower taxa. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  52. Pataki DE, Oren R (2003) Species differences in stomatal control of water loss at the canopy scale in a mature bottomland deciduous forest. Adv Water Res 26:1267–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pierce M, Raschke K (1980) Correlation between loss of turgor and accumulation of abscisic acid in detached leaves. Planta 148:174–182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Qiu GX, Shen YK, Li DY, Wang ZW, Huang QM, Yang DD, Gao AX (1992) Bamboo in sub-tropical eastern China. In: Primary Productivity of Grass Ecosystems of the Tropics and Sub-tropics. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 159–188Google Scholar
  55. Saliendra NZ, Sperry JS, Comstock P (1995) Influence of leaf water status on stomatal response to humidity, hydraulic conductance, and soil drought in Betula occidentalis. Planta 196:357–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schwendenmann L, Dierick D, KÖhler M, HÖlscher D (2010) Can deuterium tracing be used for reliably estimating water use of tropical trees and bamboo? Tree Physiol 30:886–900CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith DM, Allen SJ (1996) Measurements of sap flow in plant stems. J Exp Bot 47:1833–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Steppe K, Pauw DJWD, Doody TM, Teskey RO (2010) A comparison of sap flux density using thermal dissipation, heat pulse velocity and heat field deformation methods. Agric For Meteorol 150:1046–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sundriyal RC, Upreti TC, Varuni R (2002) Bamboo and cane resource utilization and conservation in the Apatani plateau, Arunachal Pradesh, India: implications for management. J Bamboo Rattan 1:205–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Suwannapinunt W, Thaiutsa B (1988) Effects of Fertilization on Growth and Yield of Bamboos. In: Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop. Cochin, India, pp 117–120Google Scholar
  61. Uchimura E (1980) Bamboo cultivation. In: Bamboo Research in Asia. Proceedings of a Workshop held in Singapore, p 151–160Google Scholar
  62. Ueda K (1960) Studies on the physiology of bamboo with reference to practical application. Forests Bulletin 30. Kyoto, Japan: Kyoto UniversityGoogle Scholar
  63. Waring RH, Silvester WB (1994) Variation in foliar δ 13C values within the crowns of Pinus radiata trees. Tree Physiol 14:1203–1213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Wilson KB, Hason PJ, Mulholland PJ, Baldocchi DD, Wullschleger SD (2001) A comparison of methods for determining forest evapotranspiration and its components: sap-flow, soil water budget, eddy covariance and catchment water balance. Agric For Meteorol 106:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Woodruff DR, Mcculloh KA, Warren JM, Meinzer FC, Lachenbruch B (2007) Impacts of tree height on leaf hydraulic architecture and stomatal control in Douglas-fir. Plant, Cell Environ 30:559–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wullschleger SD, Hanson PJ, Todd DE (2001) Transpiration from amulti-species deciduous forest as estimated by xylem sap flow techniques. For Ecol Manag 143:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Xiao Y, Inoue M, Paudel SK (2008) Modern bamboo structures. Tayor and Francis Group, London, p 7Google Scholar
  68. Yang CF (1965) Study on the identification of bamboo age. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 10:193–196 (in chinese)Google Scholar
  69. Yang YM, Xue JR (1998) Bamboo resources and their utilization in China. In: Proceedings of the Workshop Bamboo Conservation, Diversity, Ecogeography, Germplasm, Resource Utilization and Taxonomy. Kunming and Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  70. Yang SJ, Zhang YJ, Sun M, Goldstein G, Cao KF (2012) Recovery of diurnal depression of leaf hydraulic conductance in a subtropical woody bamboo species: embolism refilling by nocturnal root pressure. Tree Physiol 32:414–422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Yang XL, Xing FW, Chen SG, Zeng QW (2013) Structure Characteristics of Manglietia pachyphylla Community in Nankunshan Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province. J Trop Subtrop Bot 21:356–364 (in chinese) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhao Xiu-hua
    • 1
  • Zhao Ping
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zhang Zhen-zhen
    • 1
  • Zhu Li-wei
    • 1
  • Niu Jun-feng
    • 1
  • Ni Guang-yan
    • 1
  • Hu Yan-ting
    • 1
  • Ouyang Lei
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical GardenUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations