Trees

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 1259–1274 | Cite as

Endo-1,4-β-glucanase gene involved into the rapid elongation of Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens

  • Ming-Bing Zhou
  • Ying Zheng
  • Zhi-Gang Liu
  • Xiang-Wan Xia
  • Ding-Qin Tang
  • Ying Fu
  • Ming Chen
Original Article

Abstract

Key message

Endo-1,4-β-glucanasegene was isolated fromPhyllostachys heterocyclavar.pubescensinternodes. It is engaged in the culm or stem development by regulation of the biosynthesis of cellulose.

Abstract

The cellulase protein endo-1,4-β-glucanase is a member in the large glycosyl hydrolase gene family 9 (GH 9). It is widely distributed in plants, animals, microorganisms and plays roles in cell wall metabolism, including cellulose biosynthesis and degradation, modification of cell wall polysaccharides and cell wall loosening during cell elongation. Our previous studies have identified a gene homologous to endo-1,4-β-glucanase and found its expression pattern changed significantly during the rapid elongation of Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens internodes. In this work, we isolated the full length endo-1,4-β-glucanase gene from bamboo shoot and named as Phbeta-1,4-glu. Further characterization showed that Phbeta-1,4-glu belongs to GH 9 family, a conserved family in bamboo with slight variation in intron numbers and positions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. heterocycle GH 9 genes exhibit a diverse phylogeny with rice, maize, Brachypodium, poplar and Arabidopsis. Among them, bamboo GH 9 genes show a closer relationship to ones of Brachypodium. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression pattern of Phbeta-1,4-glu varied among different tissues of bamboo shoot with a lowest expression level in the tender parts. The function of Phbeta-1,4-glu in bamboo’s height growth and cellulose content was confirmed via its transformation into the model plant-Arabidopsis. Functions of Phbeta-1,4-glu in bamboo shoot have been analyzed through a combinational methods of gene structure and phylogeny. Its gene expression pattern has been investigated and its function verified. The results confirmed that Phbeta-1,4-glu engages in the rapid elongation of bamboo culm from cellulose biosynthesis to cellulose degradation. Current investigations provide valuable information for its functional studies and potential utilization in future.

Keywords

endo-1,4-β-glucanase Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens Internodes Phylogenetic relationship Cellulose 

Supplementary material

468_2016_1363_MOESM1_ESM.tif (8.1 mb)
Fig. S1 Secondary structure of the protein encoded by Phbeta-1,4-glu. α helix: red boxes; β sheet: green boxes; corner: blue boxes; random coil: yellow boxes (TIFF 8247 kb)
468_2016_1363_MOESM2_ESM.tif (17.4 mb)
Fig. S2 Transmembrane domain of the protein encoded by Phbeta-1,4-glu. Transmembrane: red lines; inside: blue lines; outside: pink lines (TIFF 17860 kb)
468_2016_1363_MOESM3_ESM.tif (13.1 mb)
Fig. S3 Fluorescent microscopic analysis of the transgenic plant (a and c) and wild-type plant (b and d). Longitudinal sections (a, b) and transverse sections (c, d) along the plant stems. Bars indicate 200 μm for a and b, and 502 μm for c and d. Red circles refer to difference between these two kinds of plants (TIFF 13462 kb)
468_2016_1363_MOESM4_ESM.docx (11 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 11 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming-Bing Zhou
    • 1
  • Ying Zheng
    • 1
  • Zhi-Gang Liu
    • 1
  • Xiang-Wan Xia
    • 1
  • Ding-Qin Tang
    • 1
  • Ying Fu
    • 1
  • Ming Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Lab for Modern Silvicultural Technology of Zhejiang ProvinceZhejiang A & F UniversityLinanChina

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