Trees

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 729–736 | Cite as

Dendrochronological potential of Millettia stuhlmannii in Mozambique

Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Tree Rings

Abstract

Key message

This study demonstrates thatMillettia stuhlmanniiproduces annual growth rings responsive to seasonal climate and should be useful for dendrochronology.

Abstract

Millettia stuhlmannii is a highly valuable and potentially overexploited timber species indigenous to southeastern Africa. It is of particular economic importance in Mozambique though relatively little is known about its growth rate or response to climate. This study investigates whether M. stuhlmannii is potentially useful for dendrochronology—that is whether this species forms annual growth rings that are responsive to external forcing such as climate. Five methods were used to determine whether M. stuhlmannii growth rings are indeed annual in nature, including analysis of ring anatomy, dating trees of known age, cambial wounding, classical cross-dating, and comparison of annual growth to climate variables. Growth rings of Millettia stuhlmannii are distinct and well formed, young trees from plantations of known age formed an appropriate number of distinct annual rings, trees showed distinct wood reaction to cambial wounding, adding exactly one complete ring in one calendar year, cross-dating within and between trees was somewhat successful, and annual growth is significantly correlated with wet season precipitation. Results of this study indicate that M. stuhlmannii is a potentially useful species for dendrochronology. These findings should allow a better understanding of this species’ growth dynamics and ecology, as well as its response to climate variability in the past and potentially to future climate change.

Keywords

Millettia stuhlmannii Dendrochronology Annual growth rings Tropical forest Mozambique Panga-panga 

References

  1. Ali CA, Uetimane E Jr, Lhateand IA, Terziev N (2008) Anatomical characteristics, properties and use of traditionally used and lesser-known wood species from Mozambique: a literature review. Wood Sci Technol 42:453–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belingard C, Tessier L, de Namur C, Schwartz D (1996) Dendrochronological approach to the radial growth of okoume (Congo). Plant Biol Pathol 319:523–527Google Scholar
  3. Borchert R, Rivera G (2001) Photoperiodic control of seasonal development and dormancy in tropical stem-succulent trees. Tree Physiol 21:201–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brienen RJW, Zuidema PA (2005) Relating tree growth to rainfall in Bolivian rain forest: a test for six species using tree ring analysis. Oecologia 146:1–12. doi:10.1007/s00442-005-0160-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bunn AG (2008) A dendrochronology program library in R (dplR). Dendrochronologia 26(2):115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bunn AG (2010) Statistical and visual crossdating in R using the dplR library. Dendrochronologia 28(4):251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlquist S (2001) Comparative wood anatomy: systematic, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of dicotyledon wood. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coates-Palgrave M (2002) Keith coates-palgrave trees of southern Africa, 3rd edn, 2nd imp. Struik PublishersGoogle Scholar
  9. Coates-Palgrave MC, Van Wyk AE, Jordaan M, White JA, Sweet P (2007) A reconnaissance survey of the woody flora and vegetation of the Catapú logging concession, Cheringoma District, Mozambique. Bothalia 37(1):57–73Google Scholar
  10. Detienne P (1989) Appearance and periodicity of growth rings in some tropical woods. IAWA Bull 10:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Douglass AE (1941) Crossdating in dendrochronology. J Forest 39(10):825–831Google Scholar
  12. Fichtler E, Trouet V, Beeckman H, Coppin P, Worbes M (2004) Climatic signals in tree rings of Burkea africana and Pterocarpus angolensis from semiarid forests in Namibia. Trees 18:442–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Groenendijk P, Sass-Klaassen U, Bongers F, Zuidema PA (2014) Potential of tree-ring analysis in a wet tropical forest: a case study on 22 commercial tree species in Central Africa. For Ecol Manage 323:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harley GL, Grissino-Mayer HD, Franklin JA, Anderson C, Kose N (2012) Cambial activity of Pinus elliottii var. densa reveals influence of seasonal insolation on growth dynamics in the Florida Keys. Trees 26:1449–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hassan Khamisi Z (2014) A tree-ring based assessment of climate–growth relationships in the Miombo region in Tanzania. MS Thesis. University of Arizona, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoadley RB (1990) Identifying wood: accurate results with simple tools. Taunton Press, NewtownGoogle Scholar
  17. Hulme M (1992) A 1951–80 global land precipitation climatology for the evaluation of general circulation models. Clim Dyn 7:57–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hulme M (1994) Validation of large-scale precipitation fields in general circulation models. In: Desbois M, Desalmand F (eds) Global precipitations and climate change., NATO ASI SeriesSpringer, Berlin, pp 387–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2012) IUCN red list of threatened species. http://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 8 Feb 2013
  20. Mackenzie C (2006) Forest Governance in Zambézia, Mozambique: Chinese Takeaway! Final Report for FongzaGoogle Scholar
  21. Mariaux A (1967) Les cernes dans les bois tropicaux africains, nature et periodicite. Bois et Forets des Tropiques No. 113:3–14, No. 114:23–37Google Scholar
  22. Marzolli A (2007) Inventario Florestal Nacional: Avaliação integrada das florestas de Moçambique. Direcção Nacional de Terra e Florestas, Ministerio da Agricultura, MaputoGoogle Scholar
  23. Mozambique National Directorate of Geology (2006) Geological Map of Gorongosa, Mozambique. Scale 1:250 000Google Scholar
  24. Pearce RB (1996) Tansley Review No. 87: antimicrobial defenses in the wood of living trees. New Phytol 132:203–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Remane I (2013) Analysis of Annual Growth Patterns of Millettia stuhlmannii, in Mozambique. MS Thesis. Southern Illinois University, CarbondaleGoogle Scholar
  26. Richter HG, Dallwitz MJ (2000) Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com/wood/
  27. Rozendaal DMA, Zuidema PA (2011) Dendroecology in the tropics: a review. Trees 25:3–16. doi:10.1007/s00468-010-0480-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schöngart J, Orthmann B, Hennenberg KJ, Porembski S, Worbes M (2006) Climate–growth relationships of tropical tree species in West Africa and their potential for climate reconstruction. Glob Change Biol 12:1139–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schulman E (1956) Dendroclimatic changes in semiarid America. University of Arizona PressGoogle Scholar
  30. Schweingruber FH (1996) Tree rings and environment—dendroecology. HauptGoogle Scholar
  31. Schweingruber FH (2007) Wood structure and environment. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  32. Seo JW, Eckstein D, Schmitt U (2007) The pinning method: from pinning to data preparation. Dendrochronologia 25:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stahle DW (1999) Useful strategies for the development of tropical tree-ring chronologies. IAWA J 20(3):249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stokes MA, Smiley TL (1968) An introduction to tree-ring dating. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  35. Therrell MD, Stahle DW, Ries LP, Shugart HH (2006) Tree ring reconstructed rainfall variability in Zimbabwe. Clim Dyn 26:677–678. doi:10.1007/s00382-005-0108-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Trouet V, Haneca K, Coppin P, Beeckman H (2001) Tree ring analysis of Brachystegia spiciformis and Isoberlinia tomentosa: evaluation of the ENSO-signal in the Miombo Woodland of eastern Africa. IAWA J 22(4):385–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Trouet V, Coppin P, Beeckman H (2006) Annual growth ring patterns in Brachystegia spiciformis reveals influence of precipitation on tree growth. Biotropica 38(3):375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Trouet V, Esper J, Beeckman H (2010) Climate/growth relationship of Brachystegia spiciformis from the miombo woodland in south central Africa. Dendrochronologia. doi:10.1016/j.dendro.10.002 Google Scholar
  39. Trouet V, Mukelabai M, Verheyden A, Beeckman H (2012) Cambial growth season of brevi-deciduous Brachystegia spiciformis trees from south central Africa restricted to less than four months. PLoS ONE 7(10):e47364. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047364 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Tshisikhawe MP, Siaga NM, Bhat RB (2011) Population dynamics of Millettia stuhlmannii Taub. in Ha-Makhuvha, Vhembe district of Limpopo Province, South Africa. ϕYTON ISSN 0031 9457, 80:127–132Google Scholar
  41. Worbes M (1995) How to measure growth dynamics in tropical trees: a review. IAWA J 16(4):337–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Worbes M (2002) One hundred years of tree-ring research in the tropics: a brief history and an outlook to future challenges. Dendrochronologia 20:217–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Worbes M, Junk WJ (1999) How old are tropical trees? The persistence of a myth. IAWA J 20(3):255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zang C, Biondi F (2012) Dendroclimatic calibration in R: the bootRes package for response and correlation function analysis. Dendrochronologia. doi:10.1016/j.dendro.2012.08.001 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Agronomy and Forest EngineeringUniversidade Eduardo MondlaneMaputoMozambique
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA

Personalised recommendations