Advertisement

Trees

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 1489–1496 | Cite as

Long-term individual-level variation of reproductive features in Sorbus aucuparia, a fleshy-fruited tree

  • Ignacio Munilla
  • José Guitián
Original Paper

Abstract

Key Message

Synchrony and fluctuation in reproductive output was not associated in individual trees.

Abstract

In a study conducted at the central Cantabrian Range, northern Iberia, we analyzed the fruiting pattern of 54 rowans (Sorbus aucuparia), a fleshy-fruited tree, over 16 consecutive years. Our objectives were: (a) to assess the covariation between several variables related to the reproductive performance of individual trees; (b) to measure the degree of synchrony shown by individuals; and (c) to address whether the reproductive behavior of individuals changed over the period of study. The fruiting performance of individuals was assessed in terms of the individual coefficient of variation in fruit output (CV i ), synchrony (as the correlation between fruiting patterns), and the frequency of heavy crop years. Mean synchrony (0.52 ± 0.18) and CV i values were large (1.92 ± 0.33) and correlated negatively. The average tree was synchronized with 60 ± 22 % of its conspecifics and about 36 ± 14 % of its fruiting years were heavy crop years. The study population included a distinct and small set of asynchronous trees and the synchrony between individual fruiting patterns was markedly reduced during the second half of the study period.

Keywords

Coefficient of variation Individual level Mast fruiting Interannual reproductive output Reproductive synchrony Sorbus aucuparia 

Notes

Author contribution statement

Both authors conceived and prepared the manuscript jointly. Ignacio Munilla was responsible of data analysis and José Guitián was responsible of field data collection.

Acknowledgments

We thank Teresa Bermejo, Fidel Mato and Miguel Salvande for help in sampling matters. This study benefited from financial resources stated in projects PB97-0516 and BOS2001-3267 from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. I.M. was supported by a Xunta de Galicia “Parga Pondal” fellowship contract during the preparation of the manuscript. We acknowledge the comments of two anonymous reviewers of an earlier version of the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Archibald D, McAdam A, Boutin S, Fletcher Q, Humphries M (2012) Within-season synchrony of a masting conifer enhances seed escape. Am Nat 179:536–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Augspurger CK (1981) Reproductive synchrony of a tropical shrub: experimental studies on effects of pollinators and seed predators in Hybanthus prunifolius (Violaceae). Ecology 62:775–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buonaccorsi JP, Elkinton JS, Evans SR, Liebhold AM (2001) Measuring and testing for spatial synchrony. Ecology 82:1668–1679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buonaccorsi J, Koenig W, Duncan R, Kelly D, Sork V (2003) Measuring mast seeding behavior: relationships among population variation, individual variation and synchrony. J Theor Biol 224:107–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crone E, McIntire E, Brodie J (2011) What defines mast seeding? Spatio-temporal patterns of cone production by white bark pine. J Ecol 99:438–444Google Scholar
  6. Guitián J, Munilla I (2008) Resource tracking by avian frugivores in mountain habitats of northern Spain. Oikos 117:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guitián J, Munilla I (2010) Responses of mammal dispersers to fruit availability: rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and carnivores in mountain habitats of northern Spain. Acta Oecol 36:242–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Herrera C (1998) Population-level estimates of interannual variability in seed production: what do they actually tell us? Oikos 82:612–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Herrera C, Jordano P, Guitián J, Traveset A (1998) Annual variability in seed production by woody plants and the masting concept: reassessment of principles and relationship to pollination and seed dispersal. Am Nat 152:576–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ims R (1990) The ecology and evolution of reproductive synchrony. Trends Ecol Evol 5:135–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Janzen D (1974) Tropical blackwater rivers, animals, and mast fruiting by the Dipterocarpaceae Biotropica 6:69–103Google Scholar
  12. Janzen D (1978) Seeding patterns of tropical trees. In: Tomlinson P, Zimmermann M (eds) Tropical trees as living systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 83–128Google Scholar
  13. Kelly D (1994) The evolutionary ecology of mast seeding. Trends Ecol Evol 9:465–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kelly D, Sork V (2002) Mast seeding in perennial plants: why, how, where? Ann Rev Ecol System 33:427–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kelly D, Koenig W, Liebhold A (2008) An intercontinental comparison of the dynamic behavior of mast seeding communities. Pop Ecol 50:329–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kerkhoff A, Ballantyne F (2003) The scaling of reproductive variability in trees. Ecol Lett 6:850–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kobro S, Søreide L, Djønne E, Rafoss T, Jaastad G, Witzgall P (2003) Masting of rowan Sorbus aucuparia L. and consequences for the apple fruit moth Argyresthia conjugella Zeller. Pop Ecol 45:25–30Google Scholar
  18. Koenig D (1999) Spatial autocorrelation of ecological phenomena. Trends Ecol Evol 14:22–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koenig W, Kelly D, Sork V, Duncan P, Elkinton J, Peltonen M, Westfall R (2003) Dissecting components of population-level variation in seed production and the evolution of masting behavior. Oikos 102:581–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lalonde R, Roitberg B (1992) On the evolution of masting behavior in trees: predation or weather? Am Nat 139:1293–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. LaMontagne J, Boutin S (2007) Local-scale synchrony and variability in mast seed production patterns of Picea glauca. J Ecol 95:991–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. LaMontagne J, Boutin S (2009) Quantitative methods for defining mast-seeding years across species and studies. J Veg Sci 20:745–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liebhold A, Koenig W, Bjørnstad O (2004) Spatial synchrony in population dynamics. Ann Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:467–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Monks A, Kelly D (2006) Testing the resource matching hypothesis in the mast seeding tree Nothofagus truncata (Fagaceae). Austral Ecol 31:366–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mooney K, Linhart Y, Snyder M (2011) Masting in ponderosa pine: comparisons of pollen and seed over space and time. Oecol 165:651–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Munilla I, Guitián J (2012) Numerical response of bullfinches Pyrrhula pyrrhula to winter seed abundance. Ornis Fenn 89:197–205Google Scholar
  27. Norden N, Chave J, Belbenoit PA, Caubère A, Châtelet P, Forget P, Thébaud C (2007) Mast fruiting is a frequent strategy in woody species of Eastern South America. PLoS ONE 2(10):e1079PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Norton D, Kelly D (1988) Mast seeding over 33 years by Dacrydium cupressinum lamb (rimu) (Podocarpaceae) in New Zealand: the importance of economies of scale. Funct Ecol 2:399–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Piovesan G, Adams JM (2005) The evolutionary ecology of masting: does the environmental prediction hypothesis also have a role in mesic temperate forests? Ecol Res 20:739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Raspé O, Findlay C, Jacquemart A (2001) Sorbus aucuparia L. J Ecol 88:910–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rees M, Kelly D, Bjørnstad ON (2002) Snow tussocks, chaos, and the evolution of mast seeding. Am Nat 160:44–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Richardson SJ, Allen RB, Whitehead D, Carswell FE, Ruscoe WA, Platt KH (2005) Climate and net carbon availability determine temporal patterns of seed production by Nothofagus. Ecology 86:972–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Satake A, Iwasa Y (2002) Spatially limited pollen exchange and a long-range synchronization of trees. Ecology 83:993–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Satake A, Bjørnstad O, Kobro S (2004) Masting and trophic cascades: interplay between rowan trees, apple fruit moth, and their parasitoid in southern Norway. Oikos 104:540–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schmidt KA, Ostfeld RS (2008) Numerical and behavioral effects within a pulse-driven system: consequences for shared prey. Ecology 89:635–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shibata M, Tanaka H, Iida S, Abe S, Masaki T, Niiyama K, Nakashizuka T (2002) Synchronized annual seed production by 16 principal tree species in a temperate deciduous forest, Japan. Ecology 83:1727–1742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Siepielski AM, Benkman CW (2007) Extreme environmental variation sharpens selection that drives the evolution of a mutualism. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 274:1799–1805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Silvertown J (1980) The evolutionary ecology of mast seeding in trees. Biol J Linn Soc 14:235–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Snow B, Snow D (1988) Birds and berries. T & Ad Poyser, CaltonGoogle Scholar
  40. Sperens U (1996) Is fruit and seed production in Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae) pollen limited? Ecoscience 3:325–329Google Scholar
  41. Sperens U (1997) Long-term variation in, and effects of fertiliser addition on, flower, fruit and seed production in the tree Sorbus aucuparia (Rosaceae). Ecography 20:521–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vander Wall SB (2002) Masting in animal-dispersed pines facilitates seed dispersal. Ecology 83:3508–3516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yasaka M, Takiya M, Watanabe I, Oono Y, Mizui N (2008) Variation in seed production among years and among individuals in 11 broadleaf tree species in northern Japan. J For Res 13:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Żywiec M, Zielonka T (2013) Does a heavy fruit crop reduce the tree ring increment? Results from a 12-year study in a subalpine zone. Trees 27:1365–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Żywiec M, Holeksa J, Ledwoń M (2012) Population and individual level of masting in a fleshy-fruited tree. Plant Ecol 213:993–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Żywiec M, Holeksa J, Ledwoń M, Seget P (2013) Reproductive success of individuals with different fruit production patterns. What does it mean for the predator satiation hypothesis? Oecología 172:461–467PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de BotánicaUniversidade de SantiagoSantiago de CompostelaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Bioloxía Celular e EcoloxíaUniversidade de SantiagoSantiago de CompostelaSpain

Personalised recommendations