Skip to main content

Seasonal cambial activity of five tropical tree species in central Thailand

Abstract

The seasonal cambial activity of five tropical tree species was investigated at Khao Yai National Park. The species studied were Tetrameles nudiflora, Magnolia baillonii, Canarium euphyllum Kur, Toona ciliata, and Spondias axillaris. Cambial activity was quantified by counting layers of undifferentiated cells in the cambium zone from wood anatomical micro sections prepared from wood samples collected in monthly intervals from July 2010 to June 2011. The relationship between cambial activity and climatic factors was investigated by using Pearson’s correlation. The growth dynamics of five studied species differed considerably. The cambium of Tetrameles nudiflora and Magnolia baillonii was most active when rainfall reached its maximum amount in June (mid rainy season), whereas the cambium of Canarium euphyllum, Toona ciliata, and Spondias axillaris was most active in March during the transition from the dry to the wet season.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  • Baker PJ, Bunyavejchewin S, Oliver CD, Ashton PS (2005) Disturbance history and historical stand dynamics of a seasonal tropical forest in western Thailand. Ecol Monogr 75(3):317–343

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bender I (2012) Climate-growth relations in trees of a tropical forest at the Huai Kha Khaeng wildlife sanctuary in western Thailand. MSc thesis, Environmental Biology, Utrecht University

  • Borchert R (1994) Water status and development of tropical trees during seasonal drought. Trees 8:115–125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Borchert R (1998) Responses of tropical trees to rainfall seasonality and its long-term changes. Clim Chang 39:381–393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Borchert R (1999) Climatic periodicity, phenology, and cambium activity in tropical dry forest trees. IAWA J 20(3):239–247

    Google Scholar 

  • Brockelman WY (1998) Long term ecological research plot for the study of animal diets in Khao Yai National Park. In: Poonswad P (ed) The Asian hornbills: ecology and conservation. Thai Studies in Biodiversity, no. 2, Biodiversity Research and Training Program, Bangkok, Thailand, pp 307–310

  • Cao F, Qi C, Li G, Zhong C, Tang D, Xu Y, Peng C (2012) Climate change effects on Southern Subtropical and Tropical tree species in Ganzhou city, China. Br J Environ Clim Chang 2(2):163–179

    Google Scholar 

  • Cardoso FCG, Marques R, Botosso PC, Marques MCM (2012) Stem growth and phenology of two tropical trees in contrasting soil conditions. Plant Soil 354:269–281

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chazdon RL, Brenes AR, Alvarado BV (2005) Effects of climate and stand age on annual tree dynamics in Tropical second-growth rain forest. Ecology 86(7):1808–1815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chou T, Chiang S-HT (1973) Seasonal changes of cambial activity in the young branch of Psidium guajava Linn. Taiwania 18(1):35–41

    Google Scholar 

  • Dave YS, Rao KS (1982a) Cambial activity in Mangifera indica L. Acta Bot Acad Sci Hung 28:73–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Dave YS, Rao KS (1982b) Seasonal activity of cambium in Gmelina arborea. IAWA Bull 3:59–65

    Google Scholar 

  • Diè A, Kitin P, Kouamè F, Guessan N, den Bulcke JV, Acker JV, Beeckman H (2012) Fluctuations of cambial activity in relation to precipitation result in annual rings and intra-annual growth zones of xylem and phloem in teak (Tectona grandis) in Ivory Coast. Ann Bot. doi:10.1093/aob/mcs145

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eckstein D, Baas P (eds) (1999) Dendrochronology in monsoon Asia. IAWA J 20:223–350 (with 11 original papers)

    Google Scholar 

  • Eckstein D, Sass U, Baas P (eds) (1995) Growth periodicity in tropical trees. IAWA J 16:325–442 (with 11 original papers)

    Google Scholar 

  • Elliott S, Kudrak C, Navakitbumrung P, Zangkum S, Anusarnsunthorn V, Blakesley D (2002) Propagating framework trees to restore seasonally dry tropical forest in northern Thailand. New For 23:63–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elliott S, Baker PJ, Borchert R (2006) Leaf flushing during the dry season: the paradox of Asian monsoon forests. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:248–257

    Google Scholar 

  • Gomez CL, Ata AM (2005) Seasonality in cambial activity of four lianas from a Mexican lowland tropical rainforest. IAWA J 26(1):111–120

    Google Scholar 

  • Gorte RW, Sheikh PA (2010) Deforestation and climate change. Congressional Research Service (CRS), Report for the Congress, http://www.crs.govR41144, USA, p 41

  • Griscom B, Ganz D, Virgilio N, Price F, Hayward J, Cortez R, Dodge G, Hurd J, Lowenstein FL, Stanley B (2009) The hidden frontier of forest degradation: a review of the science, policy and practice of reducing degradation emissions. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, p 76

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardwick K, Healey JR, Elliott S, Blakesley D (2004) Research needs for restoring seasonal tropical forests in Thailand: accelerated natural regeneration. New For 27:285–302

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heinrich I, Banks JCG (2005) Dendroclimatology potential of the Australian red cedar. Aust J Bot 53:21–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heinrich I, Banks JCG (2006) Tree-ring anomalies in Toona ciliata. IAWA J 27(2):213–231

    Google Scholar 

  • Heinrich I, Weidner K, Helle G, Vos H, Banks JCG (2008) Hydroclimatic variation in Far North Queensland since 1860 inferred from tree rings. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 270:116–127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heinrich I, Weidner K, Helle G, Vos H, Lindesay J, Banks JCG (2009) Interdecadal modulation of the relationship between ENSO, IPO and precipitation: insights from tree rings in Australia. Clim Dyn 33(1):63–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IUCN (2012) IUCN red list of threatened species. Threatened species. Version 20212.1. http://www.iucnredlist.org

  • Kitamura S, Yumoto T, Noma N, Chuailua P, Maruhashi T, Wohandee P, Poonswad P (2008) Aggregated seed dispersal by wreathed hornbills at a roost site in a moist evergreen forest of Thailand. Ecol Res 23:943–952

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krepkowski J, Bräuning A, Gebrekirstos A, Strobl S (2011) Cambial growth dynamics and climatic control of different tree life forms in tropical mountain forest in Ethiopia. Trees 25:59–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Longman KA, Leakey RRB, Denne MP (1979) Genetic and environmental effects on shoot growth and xylem formation in a tropical tree. Ann Bot 44:377–380

    Google Scholar 

  • Moran EF (1993) Deforestation and land use in the Brazilian Amazon. Hum Ecol 21(1):1–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nathalang A (2008) Monitoring plant-animal interaction for climate change. Final report for MAB Young Scientists Award 2007. http://www.unesco.org/mab/doc/mys/2007/finalReport_thai.pdf. Accessed 16 Sept 2011

  • Nobuchi T, Agata Y, Siripatanadilok S (1995) Seasonal characteristics of wood formation in Hopea odorata and Shorea henryana. IAWA J 16:361–369

    Google Scholar 

  • Pumijumnong N (1997) Cambium development of teak (Tectona grandis L.) in Thailand and its relationship to climate. In: 97th international symposium on wood science and technology, wood-human-environment, October 23–24, 1997, Seoul, Korea, pp 61–72

  • Pumijumnong N, Eckstein D, Sass U (1995) Reconstruction of rainfall in northern Thailand from tree-ring series of teak. In: IGBP-PAGES/PEP II Symposium on Palaeoclimate and Environmental Variability during the Past 2000 Years in Austral-Asian Transect, Nov 28–Dec 1, 1995, at Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 1996, pp 186–191

  • Rajput KS, Rao KS (1998) Seasonal anatomy of secondary phloem of teak (Tectona grandis L., Verbenaceae) growing in dry and moist deciduous forests. Phyton 38(2):251–258

    Google Scholar 

  • Rajput KS, Rao KS, Patil UG (2005) Cambial anatomy, development and structural changes in the wood of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) associated with insect defoliation. J Sustain For 20(4):51–63

    Google Scholar 

  • Rao KS, Rajput KS (1999) Seasonal behavior of vascular cambial in teak (Tectona grandis) growth in moist deciduous and dry deciduous forest. IAWA J 20(1):85–93

    Google Scholar 

  • Rao KS, Rajput KS (2001) Relationship between seasonal cambial activity, development of xylem and phenology in Azadirachta indica growing in different forests of Gujarat state. Ann For Sci 58:691–698

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Cricar J, Seo J-W, Rathgeber CBK, Anfodillo T, Morin H, Levanic T, Oven P, Jalkanen R (2008) Critical temperatures for xylogenesis in conifers of cold climates. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 17:696–707

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sass U, Killmann W, Eckstein D (1995) Wood formation in two species of Dipterocarpaceae in Peninsular Malaysia. IAWA J 16:371–384

    Google Scholar 

  • Sundriyal M, Sundriyal RC (2004) Wild edible plants of the Sikkim Himalaya: nutritive values of selected species. Econ Bot 58(2):286–299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Suwanpatra K (2006) Seasonal variation in cambial activity of Podocarpus neriifolius at Khao Yai National Park. Unpublished master’s thesis, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

  • Venugopal N, Liangkuwang MG (2007) Cambial activity and annual rhythm of xylem production of elephant apple tree (Dillenia indica Linn.) in relation to phenology and climatic factor growing in sub-tropical wet forest of northeast India. Trees 21:101–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waisel Y, Fahn A (1965) The effects of environment on wood formation and cambial activity in Robinia pseudcaia L. New Phytol 64(3):436–442

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams LJ, Bunyavejchewin S, Baker PJ (2008) Deciduousness in a seasonal tropical forest in western Thailand: interannual and intraspecific variation in timing, duration and environmental cues. Oecologia 155:571–582

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Worbes M (1995) How to measure growth dynamics in tropical trees: a review. IAWA J 16:337–351

    Google Scholar 

  • Worbes M (2002) One hundred years of tree-ring research in the tropics: a brief history and an outlook to future challenges. Dendrochronologia 20(1–2):217–231

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We wish to express our thanks for the support received from Mahidol University. We are also deeply thankful to Prof. Dr. Warren Y. Brockelman, Mahidol University, to allow us collecting samples at the permanent plot in the Khao Yai National Park. We also thank the anonymous referees for their valuable input and criticism regarding the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nathsuda Pumijumnong.

Additional information

Communicated by A. Braeuning.

Special topic: Dendroecology in Asia.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pumijumnong, N., Buajan, S. Seasonal cambial activity of five tropical tree species in central Thailand. Trees 27, 409–417 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-012-0794-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-012-0794-4

Keywords

  • Cambial activity
  • Climate
  • Tropical forest
  • Khao Yai National Park
  • Thailand