Trees

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 193–210 | Cite as

Measuring the impact of flooding on Amazonian trees: photosynthetic response models for ten species flooded by hydroelectric dams

  • U. M. dos Santos Junior
  • J. F. de Carvalho Gonçalves
  • Philip Martin Fearnside
Original Paper

Abstract

Increasing areas of Amazonian forest are coming under flood stress due to dam construction and greater variability in river flood levels due to climate change. The physiological responses of Amazonian trees subjected to flooding are important to understand the consequences of these changes. Irradiance response curves for photosynthesis obtained from ten tropical tree species growing in flooded areas were used to fit three empirical models. The study was done in floodplains along the Uatumã River, both upstream and downstream of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam in Brazil’s state of Amazonas (01°55′S; 59°28′W). Ten species were studied. Models compared were: non-rectangular hyperbola, rectangular hyperbola, and exponential. All models were quantitatively adequate for fitting the response of measured data on photosynthesis to irradiance for all ten species in the non-flooding and flooding periods. Considerable variation was found among the model estimates of maximum photosynthesis (Pnmax), dark respiration (Rd) and apparent quantum yield of photosynthesis (α). For photosynthesis, the two hyperbolas overestimated Pnmax while EXP presented more realistic values. For estimating Rd, RH presented the most realistic values. To avoid unrealistic value estimates of Rd, we recommend adding measured Rd values to the regressions. The results suggest that the EXP model presented the most realistic Pnmax and α values, and, in spite of less accuracy in fitting photosynthetic irradiance curves than the RH model, it can be recommended for accessing the information used in photosynthetic irradiance curves for the leaves of tropical trees growing in Amazonian floodplains or in areas that are artificially flooded by dams.

Keywords

Apparent quantum yield Carbon Convexity term Dark respiration Global warming Photosynthesis 

References

  1. Araújo AC, Nobre AD, Kruijt B, Dallarosa R, Elbers J, Stefani P, Von Randow C, Manzi AO, Gash JHC, Kabat P (2002) Comparative measurements of CO2 exchange for two towers in an Amazonian rainforest: the LBA Manaus site. J Geophys Res 107(D20). doi:10.1029/2001JD000676
  2. Brazil, ELETROBRÁS (1987) Plano 2010: relatório geral. Plano nacional de energia elétrica 1987/2010 (Dezembro de 1987). Centrais Elétricas do Brasil (ELETROBRÁS), p 269Google Scholar
  3. Brazil, MME (2011) Plano decenal de expansão de energia 2020, vol 2. MME (Ministério de Minas e Energia), Empresa de Pesquisa Energética, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  4. Cannell MGR, Thornley JHM (1998) Temperature and CO2 responses of leaf and canopy photosynthesis: a clarification using the non-rectangular hyperbola model of photosynthesis. Ann Bot 82:883–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clearwater MJ, Susilawaty R, Efendi R, Gardingen PR (1999) Rapid photosynthetic acclimation of Shorea johorensis seedlings after logging disturbance in Central Kalimantan. Oecologia 121:478–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cornic G, Briantais J (1991) Partitioning of photosynthetic electron flow between CO2 and O2 reduction in a C3 leaf (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at different CO2 concentration and during drought stress. Planta 183:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Costa MH, Botta A, Cardille JA (2003) Effects of large-scale changes in land cover on the discharge of the Tocantins River, southeastern Amazonia. J Hydrol 283:206–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Costa MH, Coe MT, Guyot JL (2009) Effects of climatic variability and deforestation on surface water regimes. In: Keller M, Bustamante M, Gash J, da Silva Dias P (eds) Amazonia and global change. geophysical monograph series, vol 186. American Geophysical Union (AGU), Washington, DC, pp 543–553Google Scholar
  9. Cox PM, Betts RA, Collins M, Harris PP, Huntingford C, Jones CD (2004) Amazonian forest dieback under climate-carbon cycle projections for the 21st century. Theor Appl Climatol 78:137–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cox PM, Harris PP, Huntingford C, Betts RA, Collins M, Jones CD, Jupp TE, Marengo JA, Nobre CA (2008) Increasing risk of Amazonian drought due to decreasing aerosol pollution. Nature 453:212–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davidson EA, Araújo AC, Artaxo P, Balch JK, Brown JF, Bustamante MMC, Coe MT, Defries RS, Keller M, Longo M, Munger JW, Schroeder W, Soares-Filho BS, Souza CM Jr, Wofsy SC (2012) The Amazon basin in transition. Nature 481:321–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Edwards E, Walker D (1983) C3, C4: mechanisms, and cellular and environmental regulation, of photosynthesis. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Eschenbach C, Glauner R, Kleine M, Kappen L (1998) Photosynthesis rates of selected tree species in lowland dipterocarp rainforest of Sabah, Malaysia. Trees 12:356–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Evans JR (1993) Photosynthetic acclimation and nitrogen partitioning within theoretical optimum. Aust J Plant Physiol 20:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farquhar GD, von Caemmerer S, Berry JA (1980) A biochemical model of the photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species. Planta 149:78–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fearnside PM (1989) Brazil’s balbina dam: environment versus the legacy of the pharaohs in Amazonia. Environ Manag 13:401–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fearnside PM (1995) Hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon as sources of ‘greenhouse’ gases. Environ Conserv 22:7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fearnside PM (2005) Brazil’s Samuel dam: lessons for hydroelectric development policy and the environment in Amazonia. Environ Manag 35:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gao Q, Zhang X, Huang Y, Xu H (2004) A comparative analyses of four models of photosynthesis for 11 plant species in the Loess Plateau. Agric For Meteorol 126:203–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gomes FP, Oliva MA, Mielke MS, Almeida A-AF, Leite HG (2006) Photosynthetic irradiance-response in leaves of dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L. “nana”, Araceae): comparison of three models. Sci Hortic 109:101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gonçalves JFC, Santos Junior UM (2005) Assimilação de carbono e indicadores de estresse da Amazônia. In: Nogueira RJMC, Araújo EL, Willadino LG, Cavalcante UMT (eds) Estresses ambientais: danos e benefícios em plantas, Chap 15:165–181. UFRPE, Imprensa Universitária, Recife, p 500. ISBN 85-87459-20-1Google Scholar
  22. Gonçalves JFC, Barreto DCS, Santos Junior UM, Fernandes AV, Sampaio PTB, Buckeridge MS (2005) Growth, photosynthesis and stress indicators in young rosewood plants (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) under different light intensities. Braz J Plant Physiol 17:325–334Google Scholar
  23. Goulding M (1980) The fishes and the forest: explorations in Amazonian natural history. University of California Press, Berkeley, p 280Google Scholar
  24. Grace J, Malhi Y, Higuchi N, Meir P (2001) Productivity and carbon fluxes of tropical rain forest. In: Roy HAM (ed) Global terrestrial productivity. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  25. Groom QJ, Baker NR (1992) Analysis of light-induced depressions of photosynthesis in leaves of a wheat crop during the winter. Plant Physiol 100:1217–1223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hirose T, Werger MJA (1987) Nitrogen use efficiency in instantaneous and daily photosynthesis of leaves in canopy of a Solidago altissima stand. Physiol Plant 70:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hootsman MJM, Vermaat JE (1991) Light-response curves of Potamogeton pectinatus L. as a function of plant age and irradiance level during growth. In: Macrophytes: a key to understanding changes caused by eutrophication in shallow freshwater ecosystems. Ph.D. Thesis, International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Enginneering, Delft, pp 57–130Google Scholar
  28. Iqbal RM, Rao A-R, Rasul E, Wahid A (1997) Mathematical models and response functions in photosynthesis: an exponential model. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of photosynthesis. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp 803–810Google Scholar
  29. Iwakuma T, Yasuno M (1983) A comparison of several mathematical equations describing photosynthesis-light curve for natural phytoplankton population. Arch Hydrobiol 97:208–226Google Scholar
  30. Kull O, Niinemets U (1998) Distribution of leaf photosynthetic properties in tree canopies: comparison of species with different shade tolerance. Funct Ecol 12:472–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leverenz JW (1987) Chlorophyll content and the light response curve of shade-adapted conifer needles. Physiol Plant 71:20–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lewis SL, Brando PM, Phillips OL, van der Heijden GMF, Nepstad D (2011) The 2010 Amazon drought. Science 331:554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Malhi Y, Wood D, Baker TR, Wright J, Phillips OL, Cochrane T, Meir P, Chave J, Almeida S, Arroyo L, Higuchi N, Killeen T, Laurance SG, Laurance WF, Lewis SL, Monteagudo A, Neill DA, Vargas PN, Pitman NCA, Quesada CA, Salomão R, Silva JNM, Lezama AT, Terborgh J, Martínez RV, Vinceti B (2006) The regional variation of aboveground live biomass in old-growth Amazonian forests. Global Change Biol 12:1107–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marenco RA, Gonçalves JFC, Vieira G (2001a) Leaf gas exchange and carbohydrates in tropical trees differing in successional status in two light environments in central Amazonia. Tree Physiol 21:1311–1318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marenco RA, Gonçalvez JFC, Vieira G (2001b) Photosynthesis and leaf nutrient contents in Ochroma pyramidale (Bombacaceae). Photosynthetica 39:539–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marengo JA, Jones R, Alves LM, Valverde MC (2009) Future change of temperature and precipitation extremes in South America as derived from the PRECIS regional climate modeling system. Int J Climatol 30:1–15Google Scholar
  37. Marengo JA, Tomasella J, Soares WR, Alves LM, Nobre CA (2011) Extreme climatic events in Amazon basin: climatological and hydrological context of recent floods. Theor Appl Climatol. doi:10.1007/s00704-011-0465-1
  38. Marshall B, Biscoe PV (1980) A model for C3 leaves describing the dependence of net photosynthesis on irradiance. J Exp Bot 31:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Melack JM, Hess LL, Gastil M, Forsberg BR, Hamilton SK, Lima IBT, Novo EMLM (2004) Regionalization of methane emissions in the Amazon Basin with microwave remote sensing. Global Change Biol 10:530–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mercado L, Lloyd J, Carswell F, Malhi Y, Meir P, Nobre AD (2006) Modelling Amazonian forest eddy covariance data: a comparison of big leaf versus sun/shade models for C-14 tower at Manaus I. Canopy photosynthesis. Acta Amazonica 36:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mielke MS, Schaffer B (2010) Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment indexes of Eugenia uniflora L. in response to changes in light intensity and soil flooding. Tree Physiol 30:45–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mielke MS, Almeida A-AF, Gomes FP, Aguilar MAG, Mangabeira PAO (2003) Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and growth responses of Genipa americana seedlings to soil flooding. Environ Exp Bot 50:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Morais RR (2003) Ecofisiologia de espécies arbóreas crescidas sob condições de plantios na Amazônia central. Manaus, INPA/UFAM 158 pGoogle Scholar
  44. Muraoka H, Koizumi H (2005) Photosynthetic and structural characteristics of canopy and shrub trees in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaved forest: implication to ecosystem carbon gain. Agric For Meteorol 134:39–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nobre CA, Borma LS (2009) ‘Tipping points’ for the Amazon forest. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 1:28–36. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2009.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ogren E (1993) Convexity of the photosynthetic irradiance-response curve in relation to intensity and direction of irradiance during growth. Plant Physiol 101:1013–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ometto JP, Nobre AD, Rocha H, Artaxo P, Martinelli L (2005) Amazônia and the modern carbon cycle: lessons learned. Oecologia 143:483–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Oren R, Hsieth CI, Stoy PC, Albertson J, McCarthy HR, Harrell P, Katul GG (2006) Estimating the uncertainty in annual net ecosystem carbon exchange: spatial variation in turbulent fluxes and sampling errors in eddy-covariance measurements. Global Change Biol 12:883–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pachesky LB, Hesketh JD, Acock B (1996) An adequate model of photosynthesis I. Parameterization, validation and comparison of models. Agric Syst 50:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Peri PL, Moote DJ, McNeil DL (2005) Modelling photosynthetic efficiency (α) for the light-response curve of cocksfoot leaves grown under temperate field conditions. Eur J Agron 22:277–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Peterson RB (1990) Effects of irradiance on the in vivo CO2:O2 specificity factor in tobacco using simultaneous gas exchange and fluorescence techniques. Plant Physiol 94:892–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Phillips OL, and 65 others (2009) Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest. Science 323:1344-1347Google Scholar
  53. Rice AH, Pyle EH, Saleska SR, Hutyra L, Palace M, Keller M, de Camargo PB, Portilho K, Marques DF, Wofsy SC (2004) Carbon balance and vegetation dynamics in an old-growth Amazonian forest. Ecol Appl 14(Supplement):S55–S71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Robinson J (1988) Does O2 photoreduction occur within chloroplasts in vivo? Physiol Plant 72:666–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Saleska SR, Miller SD, Matross DM, Goulden M, Wofsy SC, da Rocha HR, de Camargo PB, Crill P, Daube BC, de Freitas HC, Hutyra L, Keller M, Kirchoff V, Menton M, Munger JW, Pyle EH, Rice AH, Silva H (2003) Carbon in Amazon forests: unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses. Science 302:1554–1557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Santos Junior UM (2003) Ecofisiologia de espécies arbóreas plantadas sobre área degradada por atividade petrolífera na Amazônia Central. INPA/UFAM, Manaus pp 135Google Scholar
  57. Sharkey TD (1988) Estimating the rate of photorespiration in leaves. Physiol Plant 73:666–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sharp RE, Mathews MA, Boyer JS (1984) Kok effect and the quantum yield of photosynthesis: light partially inhibits dark respiration. Plant Physiol 75:95–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Silva CEM, Gonçalves JFC, Alves EG (2011) Photosynthetic traits and water use species growing on abandoned pasture in different periods of precipitation in Amazonia. Photosynthetica 49:246–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Singsaas EL, Ort DR, DeLucia EH (2001) Variation in measured values of photosynthetic quantum yield in ecophysiological studies. Oecologia 128:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stoy PC, Katul GG, Siqueira MBS, Juang J-Y, Novick KA, Uebelherr JM, Oren R (2006) Agric For Meteorol 141:2–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sullivan NH, Bolstad PV, Vose JM (1996) Estimates of net photosynthetic parameters for twelve tree species in mature forests of the southern Appalachians. Tree Physiol 16:397–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thomas SC, Bazzaz FA (1999) Asymptotic height as predictor of photosynthetic characteristics in Malaysian rain forest trees. Ecology 80:1607–1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thornley JHM (1976) Mathematical models in plant physiology. A quantitative approach to problems in plant and crop physiology. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. Thornley JHM (1998) Dynamic model of leaf photosynthesis with acclimation to light and nitrogen. Ann Bot 81:421–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tian HQ, Melillo JM, Kicklighter DW, McGuire AD, Helfrich JVK III, Moore BIII, Vörösmarty CJ (1998) Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Nature 396:664–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tian HQ, Melillo JM, Kicklighter DW, McGuire AD, Helfrich J III, Moore B III, Vorosmarty CJ (2000) Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 9:315–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vervuren PJA, Beurskens SMJH, Blom CWPM (1999) Light acclimation, CO2 response and long-term capacity of underwater photosynthesis in three terrestrial plant species. Plant Cell Environ 22:959–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhan X, Xue Y, Collatz GJ (2003) An analytical approach for estimating CO2 and heat fluxes over the Amazonian region. Ecol Model 162:97–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. M. dos Santos Junior
    • 1
  • J. F. de Carvalho Gonçalves
    • 1
  • Philip Martin Fearnside
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute for Research in the Amazon (MCTI-INPA), Laboratory of Plant Physiology and BiochemistryManausBrazil
  2. 2.National Institute for Research in the Amazon (MCTI-INPA), Department of EcologyManausBrazil

Personalised recommendations