Advertisement

Trees

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 963–974 | Cite as

Assessing sapwood depth and wood properties in Eucalyptus and Corymbia spp. using visual methods and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR)

  • Sebastian Pfautsch
  • Craig Macfarlane
  • Nicholas Ebdon
  • Roger Meder
Original Paper

Abstract

Accurate measurement of sapwood depth (D S) is essential for calculating volumetric water use of individual trees and stands. Various methods are available to measure D S but their accuracy is rarely cross-validated. We sampled 15 Eucalyptus and 1 Corymbia species along a gradient of aridity and obtained reference values of D S in fresh wood cores using light microscopy, which represents our reference method. We compared this method to the simpler and widely used macroscopic method: visual assessment of natural or induced colour change from sapwood to heartwood. In a third method, estimation of D S was based on species-specific models that rely on wood properties measured using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Microscopy allowed clear identification of D S based on the presence of blocked vessels. Measurement of D S using microscopic methods was possible for 78 of a total of 80 cores and ranged from 3.6 mm (E. loxophleba) to 43.8 mm (E. viminalis). Macroscopic assessment clearly differentiated sapwood and heartwood in 60 cores. Results from microscopic and macroscopic methods agreed closely (<10% deviation between estimates) in 35 of 78 cores. After elimination of clearly erroneous measurements (>50% deviation between estimates), macroscopic measurement across all species agreed well with microscopic assessment of D S (R 2 = 0.92). Models developed for differentiation between sapwood and heartwood using NIR spectroscopy were very robust (high coefficient of determination) for four species, but D S could only be predicted well for one (E. obliqua) of the four species. Even after elimination of apparent false estimates, prediction of D S by NIR across species was not as strong as for macroscopic assessment (R 2 = 0.88). D S can accurately be measured using microscopy if vessel occlusion is clearly visible. Although slightly overestimated, D S from macroscopic assessment was generally similar to that measured by microscopy. NIR spectroscopy was unable to predict D S with acceptable accuracy for the majority of species. Further improvements in the prediction of D S using NIR will require more intensive model calibration and validation, and may not be applicable to all species.

Keywords

Sapwood Heartwood Tree water use Wood density Wood moisture content 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The use of microscope facilities at the Department of Forest and Ecosystem Science, Creswick, Australia, is greatly appreciated. We acknowledge funding support from the Water Foundation of Western Australia.

Supplementary material

468_2011_674_MOESM1_ESM.docx (334 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 334 kb)
468_2011_674_MOESM2_ESM.docx (440 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 439 kb)
468_2011_674_MOESM3_ESM.docx (2.4 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 2462 kb)
468_2011_674_MOESM4_ESM.docx (119 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 120 kb)

References

  1. Andrade JL, Meinzer FC, Goldstein G, Schnitzer SA (2005) Water uptake and transport in lianas and co-occurring trees of a seasonally dry tropical forest. Trees 19:282–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baillères H, Davrieux F, Ham-Pichavant F (2002) Near infrared analysis as a tool for rapid screening of some major wood characteristics in a eucalyptus breeding program. Ann For Sci 59:479–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barker M, Rayens W (2003) Partial least squares for discrimination. J Chemom 17:166–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrett DJ, Hatton TJ, Ash JE, Ball MC (1995) Evaluation of the heat pulse velocity technique for measurement of sap flow in rainforest and eucalypt forest species of south-eastern Australia. Plant Cell Environ 18:463–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benyon RG, Marcar NE, Crawford DF, Nicholson AT (1999) Growth and water use of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. occidentalis on a saline discharge site near Wellington, NSW, Australia. Agr Water Manag 39:229–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergström B, Gustafson G, Gref R, Ericsson A (1999) Seasonal changes of pinosylvin distribution in the sapwood/heartwood boundary in Pinus sylvestris. Trees 14:65–71Google Scholar
  7. Berry SL, Roderick ML (2005) Plant-water relations and the fiber saturation point. New Phytol 168:25–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertaud F, Holmbom B (2004) Chemical composition of earlywood and latewood in Norway spruce heartwood, sapwood and transition zone wood. Wood Sci Technol 38:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bieker D, Rust S (2010) Non-destructive estimation of sapwood and heartwood width in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Silva Fenn 44:267–273Google Scholar
  10. Bleby TM, Burgess SSO, Adams MA (2004) A validation, comparison and error analysis of two heat-pulse methods for measuring sap flow in Eucalyptus marginata saplings. Funct Plant Biol 31:645–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bovard BD, Curtis PS, Vogel CS, Su H-B, Schmid HP (2005) Environmental controls on sap flow in a northern hardwood forest. Tree Physiol 25:31–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecol Lett 12:351–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crosbie RS, Wilson B, Hughes JD, McCulloch C (2008) The upscaling of transpiration from individual tree to areal transpiration in tree belts. Plant Soil 305:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Downes GM, Meder R, Hicks C, Ebdon N (2009) Developing and evaluating a multisite and multispecies NIR calibration for the prediction of Kraft pulp yield in eucalypts. Southern For 71:155–164Google Scholar
  15. Downes GM, Meder R, Ebdon N, Bond H, Evans R, Joyce K, Southerton S (2010) Radial variation in cellulose content and Kraft pulp yield in Eucalyptus nitens using near-infrared spectral analysis of air-dry surfaces. J Near Infrared Spectrosc 18:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dye PJ (1996) Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits. Tree Physiol 16:233–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ewers BE, Mackay DS, Gower ST, Ahl DE, Burrows SN (2002) Tree species effects on stand transpiration in northern Wisconsin. Water Resour Res. doi: 10.1029/2001WR000830
  18. Flæte PO, Haartveit EY (2003) Differentiation of Scots pine heartwood and sapwood by near infrared spectroscopy. IRG/WP 03-10459. Paper prepared for the 34th annual meeting, 18–23 May 2003, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  19. Forrester DI, Collopy JJ, Morris JD (2010) Transpiration along an age series of Eucalyptus globulus plantations in southeastern Australia. For Ecol Manag 259:1754–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gartner BL (2002) Sapwood and inner bark quantities in relation to leaf area and wood density in Douglas-Fir. IAWA J 23:267–285Google Scholar
  21. Gjerdrum P, Høibø O (2004) Heartwood detection in Scots pine by means of heat-sensitive infrared images. Holz Roh Werkst 62:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gotsch SG, Geiger EL, Franco AC, Goldstein G, Meinzer FC, Hoffmann WA (2010) Allocation to leaf area and sapwood area affects water relations of co-occurring savanna and forest trees. Oecologia 163:291–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Granier A, Anfodillo AT, Sabatti M, Cochard H, Dreyer E, Tomasi M, Valentini R, Bréda N (1994) Axial and radial water flow in trunks of oak trees: a quantitative and qualitative analysis. Tree Physiol 14:1383–1396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hacke UG, Sperry JS, Pittermann J (2005) Efficiency versus safety tradeoffs for water conduction in angiosperm vessels versus gymnosperm tracheids. In: Hoolbrook M, Zwieniecki MA (eds) Vascular Transport in Plants. Elsevier Academic Press, New York, pp 333–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hatton TJ, Moore SJ, Recce PH (1995) Estimating stand transpiration in a Eucalyptus populnea woodland with the heat pulse method: measurement errors and sampling strategies. Tree Physiol 15:219–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Henry M, Besnard A, Asante WA, Eshun J, Adu-Bredu S, Valentini R, Bernoux M, Saint-André L (2010) Wood density, phytomass variations within and among trees, and allometric equations in a tropical rainforest of Africa. For Ecol Manag 260:1375–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Holbrook NM (1995) Stem water storage. In: Gartner BL (ed) Plant Stems: Physiology and Functional Morphology. Academic Press, New York, pp 151–174Google Scholar
  28. Jung EY, Otieno D, Lee B, Lim JH, Kang SK, Schmidt MWT, Tenhunen J (2011) Up-scaling to stand transpiration of an Asian temperate mixed-deciduous forest from single tree sapflow measurements. Plant Ecol 212:383–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Köstner B, Falge EM, Alsheimer M, Geyer R, Tenhunen JD (1998) Estimating tree canopy water use via xtlem sapflow in an old Norway spruce forest and a comparison with simulation-based canopy transpiration estimates. Ann For Sci 55:125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Macfarlane C, Bond C, White AD, Grigg AH, Ogden GN, Silberstein R (2010) Transpiration and hydraulic traits of old and regrowth eucalypt forest in south western Australia. For Ecol Manag 260:96–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Martens H, Næs T (1989) Multivariate calibration. Wiley, New York, p 438Google Scholar
  32. Meder R, Ebdon N, Marston D, Evans R (2010) Spatially-resolved radial scanning of tree increment cores for NIR prediction of wood properties. J Near Infrared Spectrosc 18:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meinzer FC, Bond BJ, Warren JM, Woodruff DR (2005) Does water transport scale universally with tree size? Funct Ecol 19:558–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mokany K, McMurtrie RE, Atwell BJ, Keith H (2003) Interaction between sapwood and foliage area in alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) trees of different heights. Tree Physiol 23:949–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Münster-Swendsen M (1987) Index of vigour in Norway spruce (Picea Abies Karst.). J Appl Ecol 24:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nadezhdina N, Cermák J, Ceulemans R (2002) Radial patterns of sap flow in woody stems of dominant and understory species: scaling errors associated with positioning of sensors. Tree Physiol 22:907–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Onada Y, Richards AE, Westoby M (2010) The relationship between stem biomechanics and wood density is modified by rainfall in 32 Australian woody plant species. New Phytol 185:493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Patinõ S, Lloyd J, Paiva R, Quesada CA, Baker TR et al (2008) Branch xylem density variations across Amazonia. Biogeosci Discuss 5:2003–2047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pfautsch S, Bleby TM, Rennenberg H, Adams MA (2010) Sap flow measurements reveal influence of temperature and stand structure on water use of Eucalyptus regnans forests. For Ecol Manag 259:1190–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pfautsch S, Keitel C, Turnbull TL, Braimbridge MJ, Wright TE, Simpson RR, O’Brien J, Adams MA (2011) Diurnal patterns of water use in Eucalyptus victrix indicate pronounced desiccation-rehydration cycles despite unlimited water supply. Tree Physiol 31:1041–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Phillips NG, Ryan MG, Bond BJ, McDowell NG, Hinckley TM, Cermák J (2003) Reliance on stored water increases with tree size in three species in the Pacific Northwest. Tree Physiol 23:237–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Plomion C, Leprovost G, Stokes A (2001) Wood formation in trees. Plant Physiol 127:1513–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Poorter L, Bongers L, Bongers F (2006) Architecture of 54 moist forest tree species: traits, trade-offs, and functional groups. Ecology 87:1289–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Roderick ML, Berry SL (2001) Linking wood density with tree growth and environment: a theoretical analysis based on the movement of water. New Phytol 149:473–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rojas G, Condal A, Beauregard R, Verret D, Hernández R (2006) Identification of internal defect of sugar maple logs from CT images using supervised classification methods. Holz Roh Werkst 64:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rust S (1999) Comparison of three methods for determining the conductive xylem area of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Forestry 72:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saito K, Mitsutani T, Imai T, Matsushita Y, Fukushima K (2008) Discriminating the indistinguishable sapwood from heartwood in discoloured ancient wood by direct molecular mapping of specific extractives using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 80:1552–1557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sandberg K, Sterley M (2009) Separating Norway spruce heartwood and sapwood in dried condition with near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Eur J Forest Res 128:475–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Santiago LS, Goldstein G, Meinzer FC, Fisher JB, Machado K, Woodruff D, Jones T (2004) Leaf photosynthetic traits scale with hydraulic conductivity and wood density in Panamanian forest canopy trees. Oecologia 140:543–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Savitzky A, Golay MJE (1964) Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures. Anal Chem 36:1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schimleck LR, Evans R, Ilic J (2001) Estimation of Eucalyptus delegatenisis wood properties by near infrared spectroscopy. Can J For Res 31:1671–1675Google Scholar
  52. Schimleck LR, Stürzenbrecher R, Mora C, Jones D, Daniels RF (2005) Comparison of Pinus taeda wood property calibrations based on NIR spectra from the radial-longitudinal and radial-transverse faces of wooden strips. Holzforschung 59:214–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schwanninger M, Rodrigues JC, Fackler K (2011) Band assignments in near-infrared (NIR) spectra of wood and wood components. J Near Infrared Spectrosc 19 (in press)Google Scholar
  54. Searson MJ, Thomas DS, Montagu KD, Conroy JP (2004) Wood density and anatomy of water-limited eucalypts. Tree Physiol 24:1295–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shupe TF, Hse CY, Choong ET, Groom LH (1997) Differences in some chemical properties of innerwood and outerwood from five silviculturally different loblolly pine stands. Wood Fiber Sci 29:91–97Google Scholar
  56. Smith DM, Allen SJ (1996) Measurement of sapflow in plant stems. J Exp Bot 47:1833–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Steppe K, Cnudde V, Girard C, Lemeur R, Cnudde J-P, Jacobs P (2004) Use of X-ray computed microtomography for non-invasive determination of wood anatomical characteristics. J Struct Biol 148:11–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Swanson RH (1983) Numerical and experimental analyses of implanted-probe heat pulse velocity theory. Dissertation, University of Alberta, p 298Google Scholar
  59. Swanson RH (1994) Significant historical developments in thermal methods for measuring sap flow in trees. Agric For Meteorol 72:113–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Swenson NG, Enquist BJ (2009) Opposing assembly mechanisms in a neotropical dry forest: implications for phylogenetic and functional community ecology. Ecology 90:2161–2170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tatarinov F, Kuèeraand J, Cienciala E (2005) The analysis of physical background of tree sap flow measurements based on thermal methods. Meas Sci Technol 16:1157–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Taylor AM, Gartner BL, Morrell JJ (2002) Heartwood formation and natural durability—a review. Wood Fiber Sci 34:587–611Google Scholar
  63. Thumm A, Meder R (2001) Stiffness prediction of radiata pine clearwood test pieces using NIR spectroscopy. J Near Infrared Spectrosc 9:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vertessy RA, Benyon RG, O’Sullivan SK, Gribben PR (1995) Relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a young mountain ash forest. Tree Physiol 15:559–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Vintila E (1939) Untersuchungen über Raumgewicht und Schwindmaß von Früh- und Spätholz bei Nadelhölzern. Holz Roh Werkst 2:345–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wang Y-L, Liu G-B, Kume T, Otsuki K, Yamanaka N, Du S (2010) Estimating water use of a black locust plantation by the thermal dissipation probe method in a semiarid region of Loess Plateau, China. J Forest Res Jpn 15:241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wiemann MC, Williamson GB (2002) Geographic variation in wood specific gravity: effects of latitude, temperature, and precipitation. Wood Fiber Sci 34:96–107Google Scholar
  68. Williamson GB, Wiemann MC (2010) Measuring wood specific gravity… correctly. Am J Bot 97:519–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wilson K, White DJB (1986) The anatomy of wood its diversity and variability. Stobart & Son Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. Wold S, Sjöström M, Eriksson L (2001) PLS-regression: a basic tool of chemometrics. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 58:109–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Woodcock WD, Shear AD (2002) Wood specific gravity and its radial variations: the many ways to make a tree. Trees 16:437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zanne AE, Westoby M, Falster DS, Ackerly DD, Loarie SR, Arnold SEJ, Coomes DA (2010) Angiosperm wood structure: global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relation to wood density and potential conductivity. Am J Bot 97:207–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zeppel MJB, Murray BR, Barton C, Eamus D (2004) Seasonal responses of xylem sap velocity to VPD and solar radiation during drought in a stand of native trees in temperate Australia. Funct Plant Biol 31:461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastian Pfautsch
    • 1
  • Craig Macfarlane
    • 2
  • Nicholas Ebdon
    • 3
  • Roger Meder
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural ResourcesThe University of SydneyEveleighAustralia
  2. 2.CSIRO Ecosystem SciencesWembleyAustralia
  3. 3.CSIRO Materials Science and EngineeringClaytonAustralia
  4. 4.CSIRO Plant IndustrySt LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations