Trees

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 655–668 | Cite as

Reproductive biology of Abies cephalonica Loudon in Mount Aenos National Park, Cephalonia, Greece

  • Patrizia-I Politi
  • Kyriacos Georghiou
  • Margarita Arianoutsou
Original Paper

Abstract

The reproductive biology of the endemic to Greece Abies cephalonica Loudon, including the phenology of the reproductive life cycle, cone production in relation to plant age and the required seed germination conditions, was studied. All individuals growing within 20 permanent plots of 100 m2 each established in 11 different locations covering the entire strictly protected area of Mount Aenos National Park (Cephalonia) were monitored over a period of 4 years. The cones are formed on the upper part of the previous year’s branches, mostly at the upper crown half of the reproductive individuals (over 53 years old). Female flowers are pollinated in spring and cone maturation lasts until the beginning of autumn, when seed dispersal occurs. The annual production of cones per individual varied significantly, revealing masting behavior for this tree. This behavior was also expressed in the number of trees producing cones, as well as the percentage of sound seeds per cone. A significant difference in the mass and the length of the cones between the years of low and high cone production was observed, being higher in the years of massive cone production. Similar germination percentages were observed in full darkness or under “canopy light” and “sun light”, provided that the seeds were previously stratified for 6 weeks. It is concluded that A. cephalonica exhibits plasticity expressed in its reproductive behavior for alternating years of high to low cone production and in its seed germination for an array of habitat light conditions.

Keywords

Abies cephalonica Endemic Cone morphology Seed production Reproduction ecology Coniferous forest 

References

  1. Ammer C (1996) Impacts of ungulates on structure and dynamics of mixed mountain forests in Bavarian Alps. Forest Ecol Manag 88:43–53Google Scholar
  2. Arena M (1960) Sul potere di germinabilità dei semi e sulla vitalità dei semenzali di Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei. L’ Italia Forestale e Montana 15:247–250Google Scholar
  3. Arianoutsou M (2007) Resilience of Mediterranean vegetation to fire: issues under the global change scenarios. In: Rokich D, Wardell-Johnson G, Yates C, Stevens J, Dixon K, McLellan R, Moss G (eds) Proceedings of the MEDECOS XI 2007 Conference. Kings Park and Botanic Garden, Perth, pp 5–6Google Scholar
  4. Arianoutsou M, Christopoulou A, Ganou E, Kokkoris Y, Kazanis D (2009) Post-fire response of the Greek endemic Abies cephalonica forests in Greece: the example of a Natura 2000 site in Mt Parnitha National Park. In: Book of Abstracts of the 2nd European Congress of Conservation Biology: ‘Conservation biology and beyond: from science to practice’. Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, p 52Google Scholar
  5. Arista M, Talavera S (1994a) Pollen dispersal capacity and pollen viability of Abies pinsapo Boiss. Silvae Genet 43:155–158Google Scholar
  6. Arista M, Talavera S (1994b) Phenology and anatomy of the reproductive phase of Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 116:223–234Google Scholar
  7. Arista M, Talavera S (1995) Cone production and cone crop pattern in Abies pinsapo Boiss. Anal Jardin Bot Madrid 53:5–12Google Scholar
  8. Arya SR, Bhagat S, Singh O (1994) Seed fertility in relation to tree size of Abies pindrow and Picea smithiana. Ind For 120:677–681Google Scholar
  9. Aussenac G (1980) Comportement hydrique de rameaux excisés de quelques espèces de sapins et de pins noirs en phase de dessication. Ann For Sci 37:201–215Google Scholar
  10. Aussenac G (2002) Ecology and ecophysiology of circum-Mediterranean firs in the context of climate change. Ann For Sci 59:823–832Google Scholar
  11. Azevedo J, Morgan DL (1974) Fog precipitation in coastal California forests. Ecology 55:1135–1141Google Scholar
  12. Bassiotis KB (1956) The fir forests of Greece. Scient Annals School Agric Forest, Univ Thessaloniki, Annex, pp 1–89 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  13. Bouachrine JE (1985) Etude comparée de l’influence de la sécheresse atmosphérique sur les échanges gazeux chez 5 espèces de Sapin du pourtour méditerranéen. D.E.A. de Biologie et Physiologie Végétale, NancyGoogle Scholar
  14. Bouvarel P, Lemoine M (1958) Notes sur le reboisement: la conservation par le froid de graines de resineux. Rev For Fr 10:493–497Google Scholar
  15. Burshel P (1987) Grundriß des Waldbaus, PareyGoogle Scholar
  16. Cochard H (1992) Vulnerability of several conifers to air embolism. Tree Physiol 11:73–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dafis S (1986) Forest ecology. Ghiahoudi and Ghiapouli Publications, Thessaloniki (in Greek)Google Scholar
  18. Davidson RH, Edwards DGH, Sziklai O (1984) Treatment and temperature effects on the germination of Pacific silver fir. Northwest Scientific Association, MissoulaGoogle Scholar
  19. Davidson RH, Edwards DGH, Sziklai O, El-Kassaby YA (1996) Genetic variation in germination parameters among populations of Pacific silver fir. Silvae Genet 45:165–171Google Scholar
  20. Dawson TE (1998) Fog in the California redwood forest: ecosystem inputs and use by plants. Oecologia 117:476–485Google Scholar
  21. Debazac EF (1965) Observations sur le débourrement et la croissance en longueur de quelques espèces de sapin. Rev For Fr 2:120–130Google Scholar
  22. Dobrowolska D (1998) Structure of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) natural regeneration in the ‘Jata’ reserve in Poland. Forest Ecol Manag 110:237–247Google Scholar
  23. Dobrowolska D, Veblen ThT (2008) Treefall-gap structure and regeneration in mixed Abies alba stands in central Poland. Forest Ecol Manag 255:3469–3476Google Scholar
  24. Dodd ME, Silvertown J (2000) Size-specific fecundity and the influence of lifetime size variation upon effective population size in Abies balsamea. Heredity 85:604–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Edwards DGW (1969) Investigations on the delayed germination of noble fir. Dissertation, University of WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  26. Edwards DGW (1982) Improving seed germination in Abies. Combined Proceedings of the IPPS 31:69–78Google Scholar
  27. Edwards DGW (2003) Breaking dormancy in tree seeds with special reference to firs (Abies species)—the 1.4× solution. In: Procházková Z, Gosling PG, Sutherland JR (eds) Proceedings of the ISTA Forest Tree and Shrub Seed Committee Workshop Prague—Průhonice, Czech Republic. Forestry and Game Management Research Institute Jíloviště-Strnady. CR and Forestry Commission Research Agency, UK, pp 18–23Google Scholar
  28. Eis S (1973) Cone production of Douglas fir and grand fir and its climatic requirements. Can J Forest Res 3:61–70Google Scholar
  29. Ewing HA, Weathers KC, Templer PH, Dawson TE, Firestone MK, Elliott AM, Boukili VKS (2009) Fog water and ecosystem function: heterogeneity in a California Redwood Forest. Ecosystems 12:417–433Google Scholar
  30. Fady Β (1990) Genetic variability of height growth components of the Greek fir (Abies cephalonica). Can J Forest Res 20:1453–1460Google Scholar
  31. Fady Β (1992) Effect of osmotic stress on germination and radicle growth in five provenances of Abies cephalonica Loudon. Acta Oecol 13:67–69Google Scholar
  32. Fady Β (1993) Caractéristiques écologiques et sylvicoles des sapins de Grèce dans leur aire naturelle et en plantation dans le sud de la France - perspectives pour le reboisement en région méditerranéenne. Rev For Fr 45:119–133Google Scholar
  33. Fady Β (1995) Geographic variation in Abies cephalonica and related eastern mediterranean Abies species from terpene and isozyme analyses: hypotheses on the phylogeny of Aegean Abies species. In: Baradat Ph, Adams WT, Müller-Starck G (eds) Population genetics and genetic conservation of forest trees. Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, pp 171–179Google Scholar
  34. Fady Β, Conkle MT (1993) Allozyme variation and possible phylogenetic implications in Abies cephalonica Loudon and some related eastern Mediterranean firs. Silvae Genet 42:351–359Google Scholar
  35. Fady B, Arbez M, Ferrandéz P (1991) Variability of juvenile Greek firs (Abies cephalonica Loud.) and stability of characteristics with age. Silvae Genet 40:91–100Google Scholar
  36. Fady Β, Arbez M, Marpeau A (1992) Geographic variability of terpene composition in Abies cephalonica Loudon and Abies species around the Aegean–hypotheses for their possible phylogeny from the Miocene. Trees 6:162–171Google Scholar
  37. FAO (1985) A guide to forest seed handling with special reference to the tropics. Series title: FAO forestry paper 20/2. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/ad232e/AD232E03.htm
  38. Farjon A, Rushforth KD (1989) A classification of Abies Miller (Pinaceae). Notes Roy Bot Gard Edinburgh 46:59–79Google Scholar
  39. Fenner M, Thompson K (2006) The ecology of seeds. Ann Bot 97:151–152Google Scholar
  40. Fowells HA (1965) Silvics of forest trees of the United States. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 271, pp 546–556Google Scholar
  41. Fowells HA, Schubert GH (1956) Seed crops of forest trees in the pine region of California. USDA Forest Service Tech Bull 1150, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  42. Franklin JF (1974) Abies Fir. In: seeds of woody plants in the United States. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 450:168–183Google Scholar
  43. Franklin JF, Ritchie GA (1970) Phenology of cone and shoot development of noble fir and some associated true firs. Forest Sci 16:356–364Google Scholar
  44. Frelich LE, Reich PB (1998) Disturbance severity and threshold responses in the boreal forest. Conserv Ecol 2:7–15Google Scholar
  45. Fyllas ΝM, Politi PI, Galanidis A, Dimitrakopoulos P, Arianoutsou M (2010) Simulating regeneration and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean coniferous forests. Ecol Model 221:1491–1504Google Scholar
  46. García D, Zamora R, Gómez JM, Jordano P, Hódar JA (2000) Geographical variation in seed production, predation and abortion in Juniperus communis throughout its range in Europe. J Ecol 88:436–466Google Scholar
  47. Gauthier S, Vaillancourt MA, Kneeshaw D, Drapeau P, De Grandpré L, Claveau Y, Paré D (2009) Forest ecosystem management: origins and foundations. In: Gauthier S, Vaillancourt MA, Leduc A, De Grandpré L, Kneeshaw D, Morin H, Drapeau P, Bergeron Y (eds) Ecosystem management in the boreal forest. Presses de L' Université du Québec, Québec, pp 13–37Google Scholar
  48. Germino MJ, Smith WK, Resor AC (2002) Conifer seedling distribution and survival in an alpine-treeline ecotone. Plant Ecol 162:157–168Google Scholar
  49. Giami G (1970) The fall of seed and litter of silver fir and beech. Annal Acad Ital Scienze Forest 19:41–81Google Scholar
  50. Giannini R, Tascione D (1978) Ulteriori indagini sull’ influenza della luce sulla nascita e lo sviluppo dei semenzali di abete bianco. Estratto dall’ Italia Forestale e Montana, N. 5Google Scholar
  51. Gitzendanner MA, Soltis PS (2000) Patterns of genetic variation in rare and widespread plant congeners. Am J Bot 87:783–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Godt MJW, Hamrick JL (2001) Genetic diversity in rare southeastern plants. Nat Areas J 21:61–70Google Scholar
  53. Gogala N, Vardjan M (1989) The location of the cause of dormancy, viability and seed decay in the silver fir Abies alba Mill. Bioloski Vestnik 37:33–42Google Scholar
  54. Gosling PG (1988) The effect of moist chilling on the subsequent germination of some temperate conifer seeds over a range of temperatures. J Seed Technol 12:90–98Google Scholar
  55. Gosling PG, Parratt M, Peace A (1999) Identifying the optimum pretreatment duration and germination temperature for Abies nordmanniana [(Steven) Spach] seed, and assessing the effect of moisture content and storage temperature on seed longevity. Seed Sci Technol 27:951–961Google Scholar
  56. Goubitz S, Werger MJA, Shmida A, Ne'eman G (2002) Cone abortion in Pinus halepensis: the role of pollen quantity, tree size and cone location. Oikos 97:125–133Google Scholar
  57. Grassi G, Minotta G, Tonon G, Bagnaresi U (2004) Dynamics of Norway spruce and silver fir natural regeneration in a mixed stand under uneven-aged management. Can J Forest Res 34:141–149Google Scholar
  58. Greenbank DO (1963) Staminate flowers and the spruce budworm. In: Morris RF (ed) The dynamics of epidemic bidworm populations. Mem Entomol Soc Can 31:202–218Google Scholar
  59. Greene DF, Johnson EA (2004) Modeling the temporal variation in the seed production of North American trees. Can J Forest Res 34:65–67Google Scholar
  60. Gunia S, Simak M (1970) Effect of damaging resin vesicles in the seed coat of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Proc Int Symp Seed Physiol Woody Plants, Kornik, Poland, pp 79–83Google Scholar
  61. Gürth P (1988) Der Fruchtwechsel in Walde. Forst und Holz 10:235–237Google Scholar
  62. Haq RU (1992) Effect of seed production, distribution, viability, losses and germination on the natural regeneration of silver fir (Abies pindrow) in moist temperate forests of Pakistan. Pakistan J Forestry 42:102–111Google Scholar
  63. Herrera CM, Jordano P, Guitian J, Traveset A (1998) Annual variability in seed production by woody plants and the masting concept: reassessment of principles and relationship to pollination and seed dispersal. Am Νat 152:576–594Google Scholar
  64. Houle G (1999) Mast seeding in Abies balsamea, Acer saccharum and Betula alleghaniensis in an old growth, cold temperate forest of north-eastern North America. J Ecol 87:413–422Google Scholar
  65. Houle G, Payette S (1991) Seed dynamics of Abies balsamea and Acer saccharum in a deciduous forest of northeastern North America. Am J Bot 78:895–905Google Scholar
  66. Iijima H, Shibuya M, Saito H (2009) Examination of the coexistence mechanism of two major conifers in Hokkaido, northern Japan, based on differences in suitable germination conditions and shade tolerance. Ecoscience 16:352–360Google Scholar
  67. ISTA (2003) International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association Secretariat, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  68. Itoo M (1975) Flowering and pollen-dispersal in a seed orchard of Abies homolepis. J Japan Forestry Soc 57:121–124Google Scholar
  69. Jones SK, Samuel YK, Gosling PG (1991) The effect of soaking and prechilling on the germination of noble fir seeds. Seed Sci Technol 19:287–294Google Scholar
  70. Kailidis D, Georgevits R (1968) Bark beetle outbreak on fir on Parnis Mountain. Ministry of Agriculture, Forest Research Institute of Athens Publ 20 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  71. Kavanagh K, Carleton TJ (1990) Seed production and dispersal patterns in populations of. Liriodendron tulipifera at the northern edge of its range in southern Ontario, Canada. Can J Forest Res 20:1461–1470Google Scholar
  72. Keeley JE, van Mantgem PJ (2008) Seedling communities. In: Leck MA, Parker VT, Simpson RL (eds) Seedling Ecology and Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 257–269Google Scholar
  73. Kelly D (1994) The evolutionary ecology of mast seeding. Trends Ecol Evol 9:465–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kelly D, Sork VL (2002) Mast seeding in perennial plants: why, how, where? Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:427–447Google Scholar
  75. Khutortsov Ι (1987) Seed-bearing of Abies nordmanniana in the Caucasus reserve. Lesovedenie 2:81–86Google Scholar
  76. Kitzmiller JM, Helms JA, Stover P (1975) Influence of seed treatment on germination of Abies concolor and A. magnifica. Int. Rep. No. 3. True Fir Mgmt. Co op. School Forest and Conservation. University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  77. Koenig WD, Knops JMH (2000) Patterns of annual seed production by northern hemisphere trees: a global perspective. Am Nat 155:59–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Koenig WD, Kelly D, Sork VL, Duncan RP, Elkinton JS, Peltonen MS, Westfall RD (2003) Dissecting components of population-level variation in seed production and the evolution of masting behavior. Oikos 102:581–591Google Scholar
  79. Kohmann K, Johnsen Ø (1994) The timing of bud set in seedlings of Picea abies from seed crops of a cool versus a warm spring and summer. Silvae Genet 43:329–333Google Scholar
  80. Krajňáková J, Gömöry D, Häggman Η (2008) Somatic embryogenesis in Greek fir. Can J Forest Res 38:760–769Google Scholar
  81. Krugman SL, Stein WI, Schmitt DM (1974) Seed biology. In: Schopmeyer CS (coord) Seeds of woody plants of the United States. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 450, pp 5–40Google Scholar
  82. Lalonde RG, Roitberg BD (1992) Field studies of seed predation in an introduced weedy thistle. Oikos 65:363–370Google Scholar
  83. LaMontagne JM, Boutin S (2007) Local-scale synchrony and variability in mast seed production patterns of Picea glauca. J Ecol 95:991–1000Google Scholar
  84. Lázaro A, Traveset A, Méndez M (2006) Masting in Buxus balearica: assessing fruiting patterns and processes at a large spatial scale. Oikos 115:229–240Google Scholar
  85. Levanič T, Gričar J, Gagen M, Jalkanen R, Loader NJ, McCarroll D, Oven P, Robertson I (2009) The climate sensitivity of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] in the southeastern European Alps. Trees 23:169–180Google Scholar
  86. Liu TS (1971) A monograph of the Genus Abies. Forest College of Agriculture National Taiwan University, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  87. McCarthy J (2001) Gap dynamics of forest trees: a review with particular attention to boreal forests. Environ Rev 9:1–59Google Scholar
  88. McDonald PM (1992) Estimating seed crops of conifer and hardwood species. Can J Forest Res 22:832–838Google Scholar
  89. Mduma SAR, Sinclair ARE, Turkington ROY (2007) The role of rainfall and predators in determining synchrony in reproduction of savanna trees in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. J Ecol 95:184–196Google Scholar
  90. Messaud Y, Bergeron Y, Asselin H (2007) Reproductive potential of Balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white spruce (Picea glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana) at the ecotone between mixedwood and coniferous forests in the boreal zone of western Quebec. Am J Bot 94:746–754Google Scholar
  91. Messier C, Bellefleur P (1988) Light quantity and quality on the forest floor of pioneer and climax stages in a birch-beech-sugar maple stand. Can J Forest Res 18:615–622Google Scholar
  92. Muller C (1971) After-ripening of seeds of Abies nordmanniana. Rev For Fr 23:436–439Google Scholar
  93. Norton DA, Kelly D (1988) Mast seeding over 33 years by Dacrydium cupressinum Lamb. (rimu) (Podocarpaceae) in New Zealand: the importance of economies of scale. Funct Ecol 2:399–408Google Scholar
  94. Okada S (1983) On the variation in Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis Mast.) from different areas in Hokkaido. Bull For Tree Breed Inst Japan 1:15–92Google Scholar
  95. Owens JN (1984) Bud development in grand fir (Abies grandis). Can J Forest Res 14:575–588Google Scholar
  96. Owens JN (1995) Constraints to seed production: temperate and tropical forest trees. Tree Physiol 15:477–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Owens JN, Blake MD (1985) Forest tree seed production. A review of the literature and recommendations for future research. Information report PI-X-53. Canadian Forest Service. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  98. Owens JN, Molder M (1977a) Vegetative bud development and cone differentiation in Abies amabilis. Can J Bot 55:992–1008Google Scholar
  99. Owens JN, Molder M (1977b) Sexual reproduction of Abies amabilis. Can J Bot 55:2653–2667Google Scholar
  100. Owens JN, Morris SJ (1998) Factors affecting seed production in amabilis fir [Abies amabilis (L.) Mill.]. Can J Forest Res 28:1146–1163Google Scholar
  101. Panetsos KP (1975) Monograph of Abies cephalonica Loudon. Annals Forestry Zagreb 7:1–22Google Scholar
  102. Parducci L (2000) Genetics and evolution of the Mediterranean Abies species. Dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesGoogle Scholar
  103. Petrakis PV (2004) Space allocation in Melanophila knoteki knoteki (Reitt) var. hellenica (Obenberger) (Col., Buprestidae) in the attack of Greek fir [Abies cephalonica Loud. var. graeca (Fraas) Liu]: a pattern to process approach. J Appl Entomol 128:70–80Google Scholar
  104. Pigott CD, Huntley JP (1981) Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata at the northern limits of its geographical range. New Phytol 87:817–839Google Scholar
  105. Politi PI (2009) Conservation status of Abies cephalonica Loudon in the National Park of Mountain Aenos: population dynamics and reproductive biology. Dissertation, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensGoogle Scholar
  106. Politi PI, Arianoutsou M, Georghiou K (2007) Aspects of the reproductive biology of the Greek fir (Abies cephalonica L.) in the Mt. Aenos National Park. In: Rokich D, Wardell-Johnson G, Yates C, Stevens J, Dixon K, McLellan R, Moss G (eds) Proc of the MEDECOS XI 2007 Conference. Kings Park and Botanic Garden, Perth, pp 191–192Google Scholar
  107. Politi PI, Arianoutsou M, Stamou GP (2009) Patterns of Abies cephalonica seedling recruitment in Mount Aenos National Park, Cephalonia, Greece. Forest Ecol Manag 258:1129–1136Google Scholar
  108. Poncet BN, Garat P, Manel S, Bru N, Sachet JM, Roques A, Despres L (2009) The effect of climate on masting in the European larch and on its specific seed predators. Oecologia 159:527–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Powell GR (1970) Post-dormancy development and growth of microsporangiate and megasporangiate strobili of Abies balsamea. Can J Bot 48:419–428Google Scholar
  110. Powell GR (1977) Biennial strobilus production in balsam fir (Abies balsamea): a review of its morphogenesis and a discussion of its apparent physiological basis. Can J Forest Res 7:547–555Google Scholar
  111. Raftoyannis Y, Radoglou K (2001) Crown condition of a fir forest in Karpenisi, Central Greece. Proc Int Conf on Forest Research: “A challenge for an integrated European approach”; NAGREF, Forest Research Institute, pp 317–320Google Scholar
  112. Rawat BS, Khanduri VP, Sharma CM (2008) Beneficial effects of cold-moist stratification on seed germination behaviors of Abies pindrow and Picea smithiana. J For Res 19:125–130Google Scholar
  113. Rehfeldt GE, Tchebakova NM, Parfenova YI, Wykoff WR, Kyzmina NA, Milyutin LI (2002) Intraspecific responses to climate in Pinus sylvestris. Global Change Biol 8:912–929Google Scholar
  114. Rowland EL, White AS (2010) Topographic and compositional influences on disturbance patterns in a northern Maine old-growth landscape. For Ecol Manag 259:2399–2409Google Scholar
  115. Schauber EM, Kelly D, Turchin P, Simon C, Lee WG, Allen RB, Payton IJ, Wilson PR, Cowan PE, Brockie RE (2002) Masting by 18 New Zealand plant species: the role of temperature as a synchronizing cue. Ecology 83:1214–1225Google Scholar
  116. Seifert T, Müller-Starck G (2009) Impacts of fructification on biomass production and correlated genetic effects in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). Eur J For Res 128:155–169Google Scholar
  117. Seki T (1994) Dependency of cone production on tree dimensions in Abies mariesii. Can J Bot 72:1713–1719Google Scholar
  118. Selås VG, Piovesan G, Adams JM, Bernabei M (2002) Climatic factors controlling reproduction and growth of Norway spruce in southern Norway. Can J Forest Res 32:217–225Google Scholar
  119. Shearer RC, Schmidt WC (1987) Cone production and stand density in young Larix occidentalis. Forest Ecol Manag 19:219–226Google Scholar
  120. Siegel S (1956) Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  121. Silvertown JW (1980) The evolutionary ecology of mast seeding in trees. Biol J Linn Soc 14:235–250Google Scholar
  122. Singh H, Owens JN (1981) Sexual reproduction in subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Can J Bot 59:2650–2666Google Scholar
  123. Singh H, Owens JN (1982) Sexual reproduction in grand fir (Abies grandis). Can J Bot 69:2197–2214Google Scholar
  124. Sirois L (2000) Spatiotemporal variation in black spruce cone and seed crops along a boreal forest-tree line transect. Can J Forest Res 30:900–909Google Scholar
  125. Skrzyszewska K, Chłanda J (2009) A study on the variation of morphological characteristics of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) seeds and their internal structure determined by X-ray radiography in the Beskid Sądecki and Beskid Niski mountain ranges of the Carpathians (southern Poland). J For Sci 55:403–411Google Scholar
  126. Smith CC, Hamrick JL, Kramer CL (1990) The advantage of mast years for wind pollination. Am Nat 136:154–166Google Scholar
  127. Sorensen FC, Franklin JF, Wollard R (1976) Self-pollination effects on seed and seedling traits in noble fir. Forest Sci 22:155–159Google Scholar
  128. Speers CF (1967) Insect infestation distorts Fraser fir seed tests. Tree Planters’ Notes 18:19–21Google Scholar
  129. Spies TA, Franklin JF (1989) Gap characteristics and vegetation response in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. Ecology 70:543–545Google Scholar
  130. Stamatopoulos E (1995) Regeneration of Abies cephalonica in Mountain Parnitha National Park. Dissertation, Aristotelian University of ThessalonikiGoogle Scholar
  131. Stephenson NL (1998) Actual evapotranspiration and deficit: biologically meaningful correlates of vegetation distribution across spatial scales. J Biogeogr 25:855–870Google Scholar
  132. Stephenson NL, van Mantgem PJ (2005) Forest turnover rates follow global and regional patterns of productivity. Ecol Lett 8:524–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Suzuki W, Osumi K, Masaki T (2005) Mast seeding and its spatial scale in Fagus crenata in northern Japan. Forest Ecol Manag 205:105–116Google Scholar
  134. Takaso T, Owens JN (1994) Effects of ovular secretions on pollen in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Pinaceae). Am J Bot 81:504–513Google Scholar
  135. Thompson I, Mackey B, McNulty S, Mosseler A (2009) Forest resilience, biodiversity, and climate change. A synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. Technical series no. 43Google Scholar
  136. Tsopelas P, Angelopoulos A, Economou A, Voulala M, Xanthopoulou E (2001) Monitoring crown defoliation and tree mortality in the fir forest of Mount Parnis, Greece. Proc Int Conf on Forest Research: “A challenge for an integrated European approach”. NAGREF, Forest Research Institute, pp 253–258Google Scholar
  137. Waller DM (1979) Models of mast fruiting in trees. J Theor Biol 80:223–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wenhui Z, Xiaobo X, Jianyun Z (2006) Study on reproduction ecology of endangered species Abies chensiensis. Acta Ecol Sin 26:2417–2424Google Scholar
  139. Yamamoto SI (1993) Gap characteristics and gap regeneration in a subalpine coniferous forest on Mt Ontake, central Honshu, Japan. Ecol Res 8:277–285Google Scholar
  140. Yanagisawa T (1965) Effect of cone maturity on the viability and longevity of coniferous seed. Meguro, Tokyo Government Forest Exper Station, Bull 172:45–94Google Scholar
  141. Zentsch W, Jahnel H (1960) Tests with stratified seed at Rovershagen State Forest Estate. Forst und Jagd 10:81–83Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrizia-I Politi
    • 1
  • Kyriacos Georghiou
    • 2
  • Margarita Arianoutsou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Systematics, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Botany, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations