Advertisement

Trees

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 919–930 | Cite as

Transpiration of Pinus rotundata on a wooded peat bog in central Europe

  • Andrea KučerováEmail author
  • Jan Čermák
  • Nadezhda Nadezhdina
  • Jan Pokorný
Original Paper

Abstract

Transpiration of a central European endemic tree species, Pinus rotundata Link, growing on a wooded peat bog in the Třeboň Basin, Czech Republic, was studied in 1999–2000. Transpiration was measured by sap flow techniques (heat field deformation method) on individual trees and scaled up to stand level. The radial patterns of sap flow density showed narrow peaks in the outer part of the xylem, sapwood accounted for 47–60% of the xylem radius and 72–84% of the xylem basal area. Adult trees tolerated well both short-term flooding during the growing season and drawdown of the water table to a depth of 60 cm below ground level. The maximum and mean daily transpiration rates were 3.0 and 1.8 mm per day, and were thus similar to published data for Scots pine. The seasonal total transpiration (25 April–20 October 2000, 180 days) amounted to 322 mm, or 62% of the potential evapotranspiration over this period. This canopy transpiration was compensated by 319 mm of precipitation. The difference between the accumulated precipitation and the accumulated transpiration (derived from seasonal sap flow measurements) closely mimicked the seasonal course of the water table.

Keywords

Bog pine Heat field deformation method Radial profile Sap flow Water balance Water table 

Notes

Acknowledgments

V. Bauer and L. Rektoris provided help with the field component of this study. The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on the manuscript and to O. Bragg and L.Adamec for translation supervision. This research forms part of the Ph.D. thesis of A.K. and was funded by the Wetland Training Centre and AV0Z60050516. The work was also partially supported by the Czech project MSM 6215648902.

References

  1. Belotserkovskaja OA (1975) The water and heat balance of the forests of Byelorussian Polessie. In: Hydrology of Marsh-Ridden Areas. Proceedings of IASH Symposium Minsk 1972. IASH/UNESCO, Paris, pp 321–331Google Scholar
  2. Businský R, Kirschner J (2006) Nomenclatural notes on the Pinus mugo complex in Central Europe. Phyton 46:129–139Google Scholar
  3. Cedro A, Lamentowicz M (2008) The last hundred years’ dendroecology of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on a Baltic bog in Northern Poland: human impact and hydrological changes. Baltic For 14(1):26–33Google Scholar
  4. Čermák J, Kučera J (1987) Transpiration of fully grown trees and stands of spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) estimated by the tree-trunk heat balance method. In: Swanson RH, Bernier PY, Woodward PD (eds) In: Proceedings of forest hydrology and watershed measurements. Vancouver, Canada. Publ. No167, IAHS-AISH, Wallingford, pp 311–317Google Scholar
  5. Čermák J, Kučera J (1990a) Scaling up transpiration data between trees, stands and watersheds. Silva Carelica 15:101–120Google Scholar
  6. Čermák J, Kučera J (1990b) Changes in transpiration of healthy mature trees due to environmental conditions and of those with damaged water conductive systems. In: Klimo E, Materna J (eds) Proceedings of IUFRO workshop verification hypotheses and possibilities of recovery of forest ecosystems. Agriculture University of Brno, pp 275–286Google Scholar
  7. Čermák J, Nadezhdina N (1998) Sapwood as the scaling parameter—defining according to xylem water content or radial pattern of sap flow? Ann Sci For 55:509–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Čermák J, Úlehla J, Kučera J, Penka M (1982) Sap flow rate and transpiration dynamics in the full-grown oak (Quercus robur L) in floodplain forest exposed to seasonal floods as related to potential evapotranspiration and tree dimensions. Biol Plant 24:446–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Čermák J, Jeník J, Kučera J, Zídek V (1984) Xylem water flow in a crack willow tree (Salix fragilis L) in relation to diurnal changes in environment. Oecologia 64:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Čermák J, Cienciala E, Kučera J, Lindroth A, Hällgren JE (1992) Radial velocity profiles of water flow in stems of spruce and oak and response of spruce tree to severing. Tree Physiol 10:367–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Čermák J, Matyssek R, Kučera J (1993) Rapid response of large, drought stressed beech trees to irrigation. Tree Physiol 12:281–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cienciala E, Lindroth A, Čermák J, Hällgren JE, Kučera J (1992) Assessment of transpiration estimates for Picea abies trees during a growing season. Trees 6:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cienciala E, Lindroth A, Čermák J, Hällgren JE, Kučera J (1994) The effects of water availability on transpiration, water potential and growth of Picea abies during a growing season. J Hydrol 155:57–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diawara A, Loustau D, Berbigier P (1991) Comparison of two methods for estimating the evaporation of a Pinus pinaster (Ait) stand: sap flow and energy balance with sensible heat flux measurements by an eddy covariance method. Agric For Meteorol 54:49–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Federer CA, Vorosmary C, Fekete B (1996) Intercomparison of methods for calculating potential evaporation in regional and global water balance models. Water Resour Res 32(7):2315–2321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frankl R, Schmeidl H (2000) Vegetation change in a South German raised bog: ecosystem engineering by plant species, vegetation switch or ecosystem level feedback mechanisms. Flora 195(3):267–276Google Scholar
  17. Granier A, Bobay V, Gash JHC, Gelpe J, Saugier B, Shuttleworth WJ (1990) Vapour flux density and transpiration rate comparisons in a stand of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait) in Les Landes forest. Agric For Meteorol 51:309–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grelle A, Lundberg A, Lindroth A, Morén AS, Cienciala E (1997) Evaporation components of a boreal forest: variations during the growing season. J Hydrol 197:70–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hatton TJ, Vertessy RA (1990) Transpiration of plantation Pinus radiata estimated by the heat pulse method and the Bowen ratio. Hydrol Process 4:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heijmans MMPD, Arp WT, Chapin FS (2004) Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange from understory species in boreal forest. Agric For Meteorol 123:135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Humphreys ER, Lafleur PM, Flanagan LB, Hedstrom N, Syed KH, Glenn AJ, Granger (2006) Summer carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes across a range of northern peatlands. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 111:G04011Google Scholar
  22. Ingram HAP (1978) Soil layers in mires: function and terminology. J Soil Sci 29:224–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ingram HAP (1982) Size and shape in raised mire ecosystems: a geophysical model. Nature 297:300–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ingram HAP (1983) Hydrology in Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen and Moor. In: Gore AJP (ed) Ecosystems of the world, vol 4A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 67–158Google Scholar
  25. Jalas J, Suominen J (1973) Atlas Florae Europaeae. Vol. 2—The Committee for Mapping the Flora of Europe HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  26. Jeník J, Rektoris L, Lederer F (2002) Plant life in an endangered mire: Červené blato bog. In: Květ J, Jeník J (eds) Freshwater wetlands, their sustainable future: evidence from the Třebon Basin BR. Man, the Biosphere series, vol 28. Unesco, Parthenon, pp 399–408Google Scholar
  27. Jiménez MS, Čermák J, Kučera J, Morales D (1996) Laurel forests in Tenerife. Canary Islands: the annual course of sap flow in Laurus trees and stand. J Hydrol 183:307–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jiménez MS, Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Morales D (2000) Radial variation in sap flow in five laurel forest tree species in Tenerife. Canary Islands Tree Physiol 20:1149–1156Google Scholar
  29. Koerselman W, Beltman B (1988) Evapotranspiration from fens in relation to Penman’s potential free water evaporation (Eo) and Pan evaporation. Aquat Bot 31:307–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Köstner B (2001) Evaporation and transpiration from forests in Central Europe—relevance of patch-level studies for spatial scaling. Meterol Atmos Phys 76:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kozlowski TT, Kramer PJ, Pallardy SG (1991) The physiological ecology of woody plants. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  32. Kučerová A, Rektoris L, Přibáň K (2000) Vegetation changes of the Pinus rotundata bog forest in the Žofinka Nature Reserve, Třeboň Biosphere Reserve. In: Kirschnerová L, Kučera T (eds) Studies at permanent vegetation plots in protected areas, vol 17, Praha, pp 119–134Google Scholar
  33. Lafleur PM (1990) Evapotranspiration from sedge-dominated wetlands. Aquat Bot 37:341–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lafleur PM, Roulet NT (1992) A comparison of evaporation rates from two fens of the Hudson Bay Lowland. Aquat Bot 44:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lambers H, Chapin FS III, Pons TL (1998) Plant physiological ecology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  36. Lu P, Muller WJ, Chacko EK (2000) Spatial variations in xylem sap flux density in the trunk of orchard-grown, mature mango trees under changing soil water conditions. Tree Physiol 20:683–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Meiresonne L, Sampson DA, Kowalski AS, Janssens IA, Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Van Slycken J, Ceulemans R (2003) Water flux estimates from a Belgian scots pine stand: a comparison of different approaches. J Hydrol 270:230–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mitchell EAD, van der Knaap WO, van Leeuwen JFN (2001) The palaeoecological history of the Praz-Rodet bog (Swiss Jura) based on pollen, plant macrofossils and testate amoebae (Protozoa). Holocene 11(1):65–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Nadezhdin V (1998) Heat field deformation method for sap flow measurements. In: Proceedings of 4th international workshop on measuring sap flow in intact plants. Židlochovice, Czech Republic, 3–5 Oct 1998. IUFRO Publications Publishing House of Mendel University, Brno, pp 72–92Google Scholar
  40. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Ceulemans R (2002) Radial patterns of sap flow in woody stems of dominant and understory species: scaling errors associated with positioning of sensors. Tree Physiol 22:907–918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Meiresonne L, Ceulemans R (2007) Transpiration of Scots Pine in Flanders growing on soil with irregular substratum. For Ecol Manag 243:1–9Google Scholar
  42. Nadezhdina N, Ferreira MI, Silva R, Pacheco CA (2008) Seasonal variation of water uptake of a Quercus suber tree in Central Portugal. Plant Soil 305:105–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nekola JC (1998) Paleorefugia and neorefugia: the influence of colonization history on community pattern and process. Ecology 80:2459–2473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Neuhäusl R (1972) Subkontinentale Hochmoore und ihre Vegetation Studie ČSAV. Praha 13:1–121Google Scholar
  45. Neuhäusl R (1975) Hochmoore am Teich Velké Dářko. Vegetace ČSSR A9. Academia, Praha, 268 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Oberdorfer E (1934) Die höhere Pflanzenwelt am Schluchtsee (Schwarzwald). Ber Naturforsch Ges Freiburg i Br Naumburg 34:213–245Google Scholar
  47. Pallardy SG, Čermák J, Ewers FW, Kaufmann MR, Parker WC, Sperry JS (1995) Water transport dynamics in trees and stands. In: Smith WK, Hinckley TM (eds) Resource physiology of conifers. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 301–389Google Scholar
  48. Phillips N, Oren R, Zimmermann R (1996) Radial patterns of xylem flux in non-, diffuse- and ring-porous tree species. Plant Cell Environ 19:983–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Poyatos R, Llorens P, Gallart F (2005) Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L and Quercus pubescens Willd forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 9:493–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Přibáň K, Ondok JP (1986) Evapotranspiration of a willow carr in summer. Aquat Bot 25:203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Přibáň K, Jeník J, Ondok JP, Popela P (1992) Analysis and modelling of wetland microclimate. The case study of Třeboň Biosphere Reserve. Stud ČSAV 2:1–167Google Scholar
  52. Roberts J (2007) The role of plant physiology in hydrology: looking backwards and forwards. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11:256–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schulze ED (1986) Carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange in response to drought in the atmosphere and in the soil. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 37:247–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schulze ED, Čermák J, Matyssek R, Penka M, Zimmermann R, Vašíček F, Gries W, Kučera J (1985) Canopy transpiration and water fluxes in the xylem of the trunk of Larix and Picea trees—a comparison of xylem flow, porometer and cuvette measurements. Oecologia 66:475–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Türc L (1961) Evaluation des besoine en eau d′irrigation, evapotranspiration potentielle. Ann Agronom 12:13–49Google Scholar
  56. Verbeeck H, Steppe K, Nadezhdina N, De Beeck MO, Deckmyn G, Meiresonne L, Lemeur R, Čermák J, Ceulemans R, Janssens IA (2007) Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine. Biogeosciences 4:657–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vincke C, Thiry Y (2008) Water table is a relevant source for water uptake by a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) stand: evidences from continuous evapotranspiration and water table monitoring. Agric For Meteorol 148:1419–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wilson KB, Baldocchi DD (2000) Seasonal and interannual variability of energy fluxes over a broadleaved temperate deciduous forest in North America. Agric For Meteorol 100:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Kučerová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jan Čermák
    • 2
  • Nadezhda Nadezhdina
    • 2
  • Jan Pokorný
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicTřeboňCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and GeobiocoenologyMendel University of Agriculture and ForestryBrnoCzech Republic
  3. 3.ENKI o.p.sTřeboňCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations