Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1-associated renal disease in Jamaican children
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This report documents the clinicopathological features in two Jamaican children who presented with infective dermatitis, glomerulonephritis, renal failure and human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) seropositivity. Severe hypertension with hypertensive encephalopathy was the most impressive clinical feature. Histological findings from renal biopsy specimens in both cases revealed significant glomerulosclerosis with fibrosis, chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates in the interstitium, and arteriolar hypertensive changes. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) was demonstrable in case 1 and marked focal glomerulosclerosis in case 2. Case 1 developed end stage renal failure and died within 3 years of diagnosis. Case 2 remains hypertensive and in chronic renal failure. Although a causal relationship between HTLV-1 infection and renal disease cannot be proven by these two cases, it appears that renal involvement in children with HTLV-1 infection is severe, with the potential for chronic renal failure and malignant hypertension. HTLV-1 nephropathy should be suspected in children with infective dermatitis and renal disease.
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