Academic achievement in children with chronic kidney disease: a report from the CKiD cohort

  • Lyndsay A. HarshmanEmail author
  • Rebecca J. Johnson
  • Matthew B. Matheson
  • Amy J. Kogon
  • Shlomo Shinnar
  • Arlene C. Gerson
  • Bradley A. Warady
  • Susan L. Furth
  • Stephen R. Hooper
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. What’s New in Chronic Kidney Disease



There are limited data to describe academic achievement outcomes for children with mild to moderate pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of low academic achievement in patients with mild to moderate CKD.


Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition, Abbreviated (WIAT-II-A) data were collected at entry into the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study. Achievement in basic reading, spelling, mathematics, and total achievement was evaluated with a focus on the effects of comorbid CKD-related variables, neurocognitive, and school-based characteristics on academic achievement.


WIAT-II-A data were available for 319 children in the CKiD cohort. Low total academic achievement was present in 34% percent of the sample. There was no significant effect of CKD-related medical variables on academic achievement. Mathematics had the lowest distribution of achievement scores. In univariate models, low achievement was significantly related to days of missed school (p = 0.006) and presence of individualized education plan (p < 0.0001).


Low academic achievement was seen in over one-third of children with CKD, with the most difficulty observed in the domain of mathematics. Providers and educators should monitor for academic difficulties in this population in order to facilitate early educational assistance and promote positive educational outcomes.


Academic achievement Pediatric Chronic kidney disease 



Data in this manuscript were collected by the CKiD prospective cohort study (CKiD) with clinical coordinating centers (Principal Investigators) at Children’s Mercy Hospital and the University of Missouri—Kansas City (Bradley Warady, MD) and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (Susan Furth, MD, PhD), Central Biochemistry Laboratory (George Schwartz, MD) at the University of Rochester Medical Center, and data coordinating center (Alvaro Muñoz, PhD) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The CKID website is located at


CKiD is funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, with additional funding from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U01-DK-66143, U01-DK-66174, U01DK-082194, U01-DK-66116). Dr. Harshman is funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (1K23DK110443-01).

Compliance with ethical standards

The CKiD protocol received approval from the Institutional Review Boards at each center.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© IPNA 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lyndsay A. Harshman
    • 1
    Email author return OK on get
  • Rebecca J. Johnson
    • 2
  • Matthew B. Matheson
    • 3
  • Amy J. Kogon
    • 4
    • 5
  • Shlomo Shinnar
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • Arlene C. Gerson
    • 9
  • Bradley A. Warady
    • 10
  • Susan L. Furth
    • 4
    • 5
  • Stephen R. Hooper
    • 11
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Dialysis and TransplantationUniversity of Iowa Stead Family Department of PediatricsIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Division of Developmental and Behavioral SciencesChildren’s Mercy Kansas CityKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Division of NephrologyChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Department of PediatricsPerelman School of Medicine at the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  6. 6.Department of Neurology, Montefiore Medical CenterAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  7. 7.Department of Pediatrics, Montefiore Medical CenterAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  8. 8.Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Montefiore Medical CenterAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  9. 9.Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  10. 10.Division of Pediatric NephrologyChildren’s Mercy Kansas CityKansas CityUSA
  11. 11.Department of Allied Health SciencesUniversity of North Carolina School of MedicineChapel HillUSA

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