Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 33, Issue 7, pp 1133–1143 | Cite as

Vitamin and trace element deficiencies in the pediatric dialysis patient

  • Lyndsay A. Harshman
  • Kathy Lee-Son
  • Jennifer G. Jetton
Educational Review


Pediatric dialysis patients are at risk of nutritional illness secondary to deficiencies in water-soluble vitamins and trace elements. Unlike 25-OH vitamin D, most other vitamins and trace elements are not routinely monitored in the blood and, consequently, the detection of any deficiency may not occur until significant complications develop. Causes of vitamin and trace element deficiency in patients on maintenance dialysis patient are multifactorial, ranging from diminished nutritional intake to altered metabolism as well as dialysate-driven losses of water-soluble vitamins and select trace elements. In this review we summarize the nutritional sources of key water-soluble vitamins and trace elements with a focus on the biological roles and clinical manifestations of their respective deficiency to augment awareness of potential nutritional illness in pediatric patients receiving maintenance dialysis. The limited pediatric data on the topic of clearance of water-soluble vitamins and trace elements by individual dialysis modality are reviewed, including a brief discussion on clearance of water-soluble vitamins and trace elements with continuous renal replacement therapy.


Nutritional illness Water-soluble vitamins Wernicke encephalopathy Zinc Selenium Clearance 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© IPNA 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stead Family Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Dialysis & TransplantationUniversity of Iowa Stead Family Children’s HospitalIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Stead Family Department of PediatricsUniversity of Iowa Hospitals and ClinicsIowa CityUSA

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