Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 32, Issue 12, pp 2331–2341 | Cite as

Infection-related hospitalizations after kidney transplantation in children: incidence, risk factors, and cost

  • Julien Hogan
  • Christine Pietrement
  • Anne-Laure Sellier-Leclerc
  • Ferielle Louillet
  • Rémi Salomon
  • Marie-Alice Macher
  • Etienne Berard
  • Cécile Couchoud
Original Article



Infection is the leading cause of death and hospitalization in renal transplant recipients. We describe posttransplant infections requiring hospitalization, their risk factors and cost in a national pediatric kidney transplantation cohort.


Data on renal transplant recipients <20 years were extracted from the French National Medicoadministrative Hospital Discharge database between 2008 and 2013 and matched with the Renal Transplant Database. We used Cox regression to study risk factors of hospitalization and calculated the instantaneous risk of hospitalization per month for all infections and by infection type.


Five hundred and ninety-three patients were included, and 660 infection-related hospitalizations were identified in 260 patients. The leading cause of hospitalization was urinary tract infection (UTI), followed by viral infection (16.6 and 15.6 per 100 person-years, respectively). Risk factors were younger age at transplantation, high number of HLA mismatches, and use cyclosporine rather than tacrolimus as first anticalcineurin treatment. Risk factors varied by infection type. Female gender, uropathy, cold ischemia time, and cyclosporine were associated with increased risk of UTI, while only age at transplantation inversely correlated with virus-related hospitalizations. Instantaneous risk of all infections decreased with time, except for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection that displayed a peak at 6 months posttransplantation after prophylaxis withdrawal. Total cost of infection-related hospitalizations was 1600 kilo-euro (k€) (933 €/person-years).


This study highlights the high burden of infection in transplanted pediatric patients, especially the youngest. This should be considered both for pretransplantation information and designing procedures aiming to decrease hospitalization rate and duration.


Hospitalization rate Posttransplant Children EBV CMV UTI Cost 



Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts


Hospital admission rate




Urinary tract infection


Authors’ contributions

Julien Hogan and Cécile Couchoud participated in manuscript conception, data analysis, and manuscript writing.

Christine Pietrement, Anne-Laure Sellier-Leclerc, Ferielle Louillet, and Rémi Salomon participated in data collection and manuscript writing.

Marie-Alice Macher and Etienne Berard participated in manuscript conception, data collection, and manuscript writing.

All the authors have revised the article and approve the final version.

Compliance with ethical standards

The French Advisory Committee on Information Processing in Material Research in the Field of Health (CCTIRS) and the National Commission for Information Technology and Privacy (Commission Nationale de l’Informatique et des Libertés) approved in 2003 data collection and analysis conducted by the REIN registry. REIN is the French ESRD registry includind the data of the patients on dialysis and of the transplanted patients. Organization, data collection and quality control of the REIN registry have been described by Couchoud et al. (The renal epidemiology and information network (REIN): a new registry for end-stage renal disease in France. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 411–418).


The authors declare no conflicts of interest.




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Copyright information

© IPNA 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julien Hogan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christine Pietrement
    • 3
  • Anne-Laure Sellier-Leclerc
    • 4
  • Ferielle Louillet
    • 5
  • Rémi Salomon
    • 6
  • Marie-Alice Macher
    • 1
  • Etienne Berard
    • 7
  • Cécile Couchoud
    • 2
  1. 1.Pediatric Nephrology DepartmentHôpital Robert Debré, APHPParisFrance
  2. 2.Registre REIN, Agence de la BiomédecineLa Plaine Saint-DenisFrance
  3. 3.Pediatric Nephrology DepartmentAmerican Mémorial HospitalReimsFrance
  4. 4.Pediatric Nephrology DepartmentHôpital Femme Mère EnfantBronFrance
  5. 5.Pediatric Nephrology DepartmentHôpital Charles NicolleRouenFrance
  6. 6.Pediatric Nephrology DepartmentHôpital Necker Enfants MaladesParisFrance
  7. 7.Pediatric Nephrology DepartmentFondation LenvalNiceFrance

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