Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 32, Issue 7, pp 1233–1241

Dietary sources of energy and nutrient intake among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease

  • Wen Chen
  • Kirstie Ducharme-Smith
  • Laura Davis
  • Wun Fung Hui
  • Bradley A. Warady
  • Susan L. Furth
  • Alison G. Abraham
  • Aisha Betoko
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00467-017-3580-0

Cite this article as:
Chen, W., Ducharme-Smith, K., Davis, L. et al. Pediatr Nephrol (2017) 32: 1233. doi:10.1007/s00467-017-3580-0



Our purpose was to identify the main food contributors to energy and nutrient intake in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).


In this cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, we estimated energy and nutrient intake and identified the primary contributing foods within this population.


Completed FFQs were available for 658 children. Of those, 69.9% were boys, median age 12 (interquartile range (IQR) 8–15 years). The average daily energy intake was 1968 kcal (IQR 1523–2574 kcal). Milk was the largest contributor to total energy, protein, potassium, and phosphorus intake. Fast foods were the largest contributors to fat and sodium intake, the second largest contributors to energy intake, and the third largest contributors to potassium and phosphorus intake. Fruit contributed 12.0%, 8.7%, and 6.7% to potassium intake for children aged 2–5, 6–13, and 14–18 years old, respectively.


Children with CKD consumed more sodium, protein, and calories but less potassium than recommended by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines for pediatric CKD. Energy, protein, and sodium intake is heavily driven by consumption of milk and fast foods. Limiting contribution of fast foods in patients with good appetite may be particularly important for maintaining recommended energy and sodium intake, as overconsumption can increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular complications in that population.


Nutrient intake Food Children Adolescents Chronic kidney disease 



Adequate intake


Chronic Kidney Disease in Children


Chronic kidney disease


Dietary sources of nutrients


Estimated glomerular filtration rate


Estimated energy requirement


Food Frequency Questionnaire


Interquartile range


National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


National Kidney Foundation


Recommended dietary allowance

Supplementary material

467_2017_3580_MOESM1_ESM.docx (44 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 44 kb)

Copyright information

© IPNA 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wen Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kirstie Ducharme-Smith
    • 3
  • Laura Davis
    • 3
  • Wun Fung Hui
    • 4
  • Bradley A. Warady
    • 2
  • Susan L. Furth
    • 4
    • 5
  • Alison G. Abraham
    • 6
    • 7
  • Aisha Betoko
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public HealthTianjin Medical UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric NephrologyChildren’s Mercy HospitalKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.Johns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Perelman School of Medicine at the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  6. 6.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  7. 7.Department of OphthalmologyJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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