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Table 4 Perinatal risk factors in cerebral palsy. Adapted from [61] used with permission. UMN upper motor neuron lesion, LMN lower motor neuron lesion

From: Neurogenic bladder: etiology and assessment

Factor UMN (no. of patients) LMN (no. of patients)
Prematurity 10 1
Respiratory distress/arrest/apnea 9 2
Neonatal seizures 5
Infection 5 1
Traumatic birth 5
Congenital hydrocephalus 3
Placenta previa/abruption 2 2
Hypoglycemia seizures 2
Intracranial hemorrhage 2
Cyanosis at birth 1 3
No specific factor noted 15