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Table 2 Surveillance in infants with myelodysplasia (until age 5 years) (IVP intravenous pyelogram, ECHO sonogram, UDS urodynamic study, VCUG voiding cystourethrogram, RNC radionuclide cystogram)

From: Neurogenic bladder: etiology and assessment

Sphincter activity Recommended tests Frequency
Intact-synergic Post-void residual volume Every 4 months
IVP or renal ECHO Every 12 months
UDS Every 12 months
Intact-dyssynergica IVP or renal ECHO Every 12 months
UDS Every 12 months
VCUG or RNCb Every 12 months
Partial denervation Post-void residual volume Every 4 months
IVP or renal ECHO Every 12 months
UDSc Every 12 months
VCUG or RNCb Every 12 months
Complete denervation Post-void residual volume Every 6 months
Renal ECHO Every 12 months
  1. aPatients receiving intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic agents
  2. bIf detrusor hypertonicity or reflux is already present
  3. cDepending on degree of denervation