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Bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in children with chronic renal failure


Bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (L2-L4) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 21 children with predialysis chronic renal failure (CRF) and 44 children with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) on regular hemodialysis. BMD results were expressed as Z-scores. Osteopenia was documented in 13 predialysis patients (61.9%) and 26 patients (59.1%) with ESRF. No significant correlation was observed between Z-scores and the duration of CRF or estimated creatinine clearance. In osteopenic children there was a negative correlation between Z-scores and serum phosphorus (r=−0.61, P=0.004), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (r=−0.47, P=0.03), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (r=−0.52, P=0.02) and a positive correlation with total calcium (r=0.41, P=0.07) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (r=0.53, P=0.02). Osteopenic children who had iPTH values ≥200 pg/ml were more osteopenic than those who had lower iPTH levels (P=0.006). In conclusion, osteopenia, assessed by DEXA, is frequent in children with CRF. It occurs early irrespective of the duration or the severity of CRF. In children with ESRF the degree of osteopenia is correlated with laboratory markers of renal osteodystrophy and patients with biochemical findings of secondary hyperparathyroidism are more osteopenic than the others.

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Correspondence to Ashraf M. Bakr.

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Bakr, A.M. Bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 19, 1390–1393 (2004).

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  • Renal osteodystrophy
  • Bone turnover markers
  • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry