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Resident education in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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Resident education in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was studied in a retrospective analysis of consecutive cases performed at two academic institutions with different educational approaches.


Each procedure was performed by a resident as operating surgeon under the direct guidance of one of a small, constant group of LC-certified attendings acting as first assistant. In group I (n = 48), residents acquired LC skills by graded exposure and surgical responsibility similar to their training in other general surgical procedures. In group II (n = 48) residents were additionally certified via an intensive course (including didactic and animal model experience) prior to assuming responsibility as surgeon.


Results were similar in each group. No technical errors were identified. Blood transfusion was not required related to surgery. Conversion to an open procedure occurred in 10% and 8% in groups I and II, respectively. The rate of complications was 4% for group I and 8% for group II. A longer operating time was noted in group I and may be attributed to nonoperative reasons.


Education in LC via graded experience throughout residency achieves results similar to that found with the addition of an intensive course. This additional training may not be necessary for surgical residents.

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Friedman, R.L., Pace, B.W. Resident education in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 10, 26–28 (1996).

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