Prophylactic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) may be beneficial in reducing gallstone disease after bariatric surgery. The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) 2019 guidelines recommend a 6-month course of UDCA for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). This has not been adopted broadly. This study intends to assess the effect of routine UDCA administration following LSG on symptomatic gallstone disease.
We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent LSG, between 2009 and 2019, at two tertiary care centers in Atlantic Canada. At one center, UDCA 250 mg oral twice daily was routinely prescribed following LSG for 6 months to patients with an intact gallbladder. At the other center, UDCA was not prescribed. Primary and secondary outcomes were cholecystectomy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) rates. Compliance with and side effects of UDCA therapy were analyzed.
A total of 751 patients were included in the study. Patients who had prior cholecystectomy or were lost to follow up were excluded. After exclusion criteria were applied, 461 patients were included for analysis: 303 in the UDCA group and 158 in the group who did not receive UDCA. Cholecystectomy rate was not significantly associated with UDCA administration, however there was a trend towards less cholecystectomy in patients who received UDCA (8.3% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.056). ERCP rate was significantly lower in patients who received UDCA (0.3% vs 2.5%, p = 0.031). Rate of gallstone disease requiring intervention, either cholecystectomy or ERCP, was significantly decreased in patients who received UDCA (8.9% vs 15.8%, p = 0.022). The most common barriers to compliance with UDCA were cost (45.4%) and nausea (18.1%).
This is the first study to demonstrate lower rates of ERCP in patients receiving routine UDCA following LSG. Our findings support the ASMBS 2019 guidelines for administering UDCA after LSG for preventing gallstone disease.
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Dr. Intekhab Hossain, Dr. Jane Brodie, Erin O’Brien, Dr. Katherine Tedman-Aucoin, Diana Lawlor, Raleen Murphy, Dr. Laurie Twells, Dr. David Pace, Dr. James Ellsmere, and Dr. Bradley Evans have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.
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Hossain, I., Brodie, J., O’Brien, E. et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid for prevention of gallstone disease after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: an Atlantic Canada perspective. Surg Endosc 37, 5236–5240 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-023-10015-y