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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Lower conversion rate with robotic assisted rectal resections compared with conventional laparoscopy; a national cohort study

  Total n = 1284 LR n = 909 RR n = 375 p value*
Sex     
 Male 782 551 (61) 231 (62) 0.743
 Female 502 358 (39) 144 (38)  
Age, median (IQR) 69 (60–76) 69 (60–76) 69 (60–75) 0.760
BMI     
  < 18.5 24 18 (2) 6 (1.7) 0.067
 18.8–25 511 380 (42.4) 131 (36.1)  
 25–30 496 350 (39.1) 146 (40.2)  
  > 30 228 148 (16.5) 80 (22.0)  
ASA-score     
 Low (1–2) 871 640 (70.4) 231 (61.6) 0.002
 High (3–4) 413 269 (29.6) 144 (38.4)  
ECOG-class     
 Low (0–1) 1210 854 (94.1) 356 (96.5) 0.078
 High (2–4) 67 54 (5.9) 13 (3.6)  
Diabetes 134 92 (10.1) 42 (11.2) 0.565
Pulmonary disease 48 44 (4.8) 4 (1.1) 0.001
Cardiac disease 73 65 (7.2) 8 (2.1)  < 0.001
Radio(chemo)therapy 375 323 (25.5) 143 (38.1)  < 0.001
Tumor levela     
 Low (0–5 cm) 244 159 (26.6) 85 (35.0) 0.045
 Mid (5–10 cm) 332 224 (37.5) 108 (40.6)  
 High (10–15 cm) 287 214 (35.8) 73 (27.3)  
Operative technique     
 LARb 743 552 (60.7) 191 (50.9) 0.003
 APRc 432 280 (30.8) 152 (40.5)  
 Hartmann 109 77 (8.5) 32 (8.5)  
  1. Values in parentheses are percentages unless indicated otherwise
  2. LR laparoscopic resections, RR robotic resections
  3. *Chi-square analyses
  4. aCm from anal verge measured with rigid proctoscope
  5. bLow anterior resection
  6. cAbdominoperineal resection