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Dual common bile duct examination with transcystic choledochoscopy and cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy for suspected choledocholithiasis: a prospective study

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Detection of common bile duct (CBD) stones is a major objective of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We evaluated the feasibility and safety of the routine use of transcystic choledochoscopy following IOC (dual common bile duct examination: DCBDE), which may improve the diagnostic accuracy of CBD stones and facilitate one-stage clearance, in LC for suspected choledocholithiasis.


Between May 2017 and November 2018, 38 patients with suspected choledocholithiasis were prospectively enrolled in this study, regardless of whether they underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy. Transcystic choledochoscopy was routinely attempted following IOC in LC.


Five cases were excluded due to cholecystitis, bile duct anomaly, or liver cirrhosis. DCBDE was performed in the remaining 33 patients. The biliary tree was delineated by IOC in all patients. Subsequently, choledochosope was performed in 32 patients except for one who was found to have pancreaticobiliary malunion in IOC. The scope was successfully passed into the CBD in 25 (78.1%) patients. Choledochoscopy detected 3 (9.4%) cases of cystic duct stones and 4 (12.5%) cases of CBD stones which were not identified by IOC. All those stones were removed via cystic duct. There were no intra- and postoperative complications, except for two cases of wound infection and one case of a transient increase in serum amylase.


DCBDE in LC is a safe and promising approach for intraoperative diagnosis and one-stage treatment of suspected choledocholithasis.

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Correspondence to Shunichiro Komatsu.

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T. Matsumura, S. Komatsu, K. Komaya, Y. Fukami, T. Arikawa, T. Saito, T. Osawa, S. Kurahashi, T. Uchino, S. Kato, Y. Toda, K. Kaneko and T. Sano have no conflict of interest to declare.

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Matsumura, T., Komatsu, S., Komaya, K. et al. Dual common bile duct examination with transcystic choledochoscopy and cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy for suspected choledocholithiasis: a prospective study. Surg Endosc 35, 3379–3386 (2021).

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