Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has a favorable outcome, compared to esophagectomy, for early esophageal neoplasia. Recent studies used general anesthesia for esophageal ESD to minimize complications due to insufficient sedation and patient movement. We aimed to evaluate the safety of general anesthesia in comparison with conscious sedation provided by anesthesiologists for esophageal ESD.
We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of 158 patients who underwent esophageal ESD under general anesthesia or conscious sedation provided by anesthesiologists. We evaluated the incidence of procedure-related complications, including perforation, post-ESD bleeding, cardiopulmonary adverse events (arrhythmia, hypotension, and hypoxemia), procedure failure, stricture, and new lung consolidation after ESD. Cases of frank perforation, post-ESD bleeding requiring a vigorous diagnostic approach, and cardiopulmonary adverse events were regarded as acute complications of ESD.
Acute complications occurred only in the conscious sedation group (8/83 [9.6%] vs. 0/75 [0.0%]; p value = 0.007). The numbers of patients with frank perforation, post-ESD bleeding, and cardiopulmonary adverse events were four, one, and three, respectively. Moreover, new lung consolidation after ESD developed only in the conscious sedation group (7/83 [8.4%] vs. 0/75 [0.0%]; p value = 0.014). ESD failed in four patients in the conscious sedation group. The incidences of stricture that required stent insertion and hospital stay after ESD were comparable between the two groups.
General anesthesia is associated with a lower incidence of acute procedure-related complications in esophageal ESD compared to conscious sedation provided by anesthesiologists. Therefore, we recommend general anesthesia as a safer option for esophageal ESD.
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Drs. Seung Hyun Kim, Yong Seon Choi, Sang Kil Lee, Hanseul Oh, and Seung Ho Choi have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.
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Kim, S.H., Choi, Y.S., Lee, S.K. et al. Comparison of general anesthesia and conscious sedation in procedure-related complications during esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection. Surg Endosc 34, 3560–3566 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07663-9
- Esophageal endoscopic submucosal resection
- General anesthesia
- Conscious sedation